Lavabit – Redacted Pleadings Exhibits 1 to 23 (Text version)

EXHIBIT  1 

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 

FOR TIlE EASTERN DISTRICT OF VIRGINIA 

IN  RE APPLICATION  OF THE 

UNITED STATES OF AMERlCA FOR 

AN ORDER PURSUANT TO 

18  U.S.C.  § 2703(d) 

MISC.  NO.  1:13 EC  :!-5'-\ 

Filed Under Seal 

ORDER 

The United  States has  submitted an application pursuant to  18  U.S.C.  § 2703(d), 

requesting that the Court  issue an Order requiring Lavabit  LLC, an electronic cornmunicatjons 

service provider and/or a  remote computing service located  in  Dallas, TX, to  disclose the records 

and  other information described in  Attachment A to  this Order. 

The Court finds  that the  United States  has  offered specific and articulable  facts  showing 

that there arc reasonable grounds to  believe that the records or other information sought are 

relevant and  material  to an ongoing criminal  investigation. 

The Court  detennines that there is  reason to  believe that notification of the existence of 

this  Order will  seriously jeopardize the ongoing investigation,  including by  giving targets an 

opportunity to  flee or continue flight  from  prosecution,  destroy or  tamper with evidence, change 

patterns of behavior, or notify confederates.  See  18  U.S.C.  § 2705(b)(2), (3), (5). 

IT IS  THEREFORE ORDERED, pursuant to  18  U.S.C. § 2703(d), that  Lavabit  LLC 

shall,  within  ten  days of the date of this Order, disclose to the  United States the records and  other 

infonnation described  in Attachment A to  this Order. 

IT  [S  FURTHER ORDERED that Lavabit LLC shall not disclose the existence of the 

application of the  United  States, or the existence of this  Order of the  Court, to the  subscribers of 

the  account(s)  listed  in  Attachment A,  or to  any other person, unless and  until  otherwise 

authorized to  do so  by  the  Court, except that  Lavabit LLC may disclose this Order to  an attorney 

for  Lavabit LLC  for the  purpose of receiving  legal  advice. 

IT  IS  FURTHER ORDERED  that  the  application and this Order are  sealed until 

otl,erwise ordered  by the  Court. 

United States Magistrate Judge 

A TRUE COpy. TESTE: 

1.  The Account(s) 

The  Order 'applies 

account( s): 

ATTACHMENT A 

infonnation associated  with  the following email 

IJ.  Records and Other Information to  Be  Disclosed 

Lavabit  LLC  is  required to disclose  the  following records and  other information,  if available, to 

the United  States  for  each account or identifier listed  in  Part I of this  Attachment ("AccounC), 

for  the  time  period  from  inception to  the present: 

A.  The following  information about the  customers or subscribers  of the  Account 

1.  Names (including subscriber names,  user names, and  screen  names); 

2.  Addresses (including mailing addresses,  residential addresses,  business 

addresses, and e-mail  addresses); 

3.  Local  and  long distance telephone connection records; 

4.  Records of session times and  durations, and  the temporarily assigned 

network addresses (such as Internet Protocol  ("IP") addresses) associated 

with those sessions; 

5.  Length of service (including start date) and  types of service utilized; 

6.  Telephone or instrument numbers (including MAC addresses); 

7.  Other subscriber numbers or identities (including the registration Internet 

Protocol  ("iP") address); and 

8.  Means and  source of payment  for  such service (including any credit card 

or bank account number) and  billing records. 

B.  All  records and  other infonnation (not including  the  contents of communications) 

rdating to  the  Account, including: 

1.  Records of user activity for each connection made to or from  the  Account, 

including log files;  messaging logs;  the date,  time, length, and  method  ot" 

connections; data transfer volume;  user  names; and source and  destination 

Internet  Protocol  addresses; 

2.  Infonnation about each communication sent or received by  the Account, 

including the date and  time of the communication, the  method  of 

communication, and  the source and destination of the  communication 

(such as source and  destination email  addresses,  IP addresses, and 

telephone numbers). 

CERTIFICATE OF AUTHENTI CITY OF  DOMESTIC BUSINESS  RECORDS 

PURSUANT TO FEDERAL RULE  OF EVIDENCE 902(11) 

I,    ______________    attest,  under penalties of perj ury  under  the 

laws of the  United States of America pursuant to  28  U.S.c.  §  1746, that the  infonnation 

           in  this declaration is  true  and correct.  r am  employed by  Lavabit LLC, and  my official 

title is   _____________  . r am a custodian of records for  Lavabit LLC.  I state 

that each  of the  records attached  hereto  is  the  original  record  or a true duplicate of the  original 

record in  the custody of Lavabit LLC,  and  that  I am the custodian of the  attached  records 

consisting of  (pages/CDslkilobytes).  I further state that: 

a.  all  records attached  to  this  certificate were  made at or ncar the  time of the 

occurrence of the matter sct forth,  by,  or from  information transmitted  by, a person with 

knowledge of those  matters; 

b.  such records  were kept in the ordinary course of a regularly conducted business 

activity of Lava bit  LLC; and 

c,  such records  were  made  by Lavabit LLC as  a regular practice. 

I further state that  this certification is  intended to satisfy Rule  902(11) of the  Federal 

Rules  of Evidence. 

Date  Signature 

·  EXHIBIT 2 

IN THE UNlTED STATES  D1STRlCT COURT FOR THE 

EASTERN DISTRlCT OF VIRGINIA 

.AJ exandria  Division 

IN  THE MA TIER OF THE APPLICATION 

OF THE UNITED STATES OF  AMERlCA 

FOR AN  ORDER AUTHORlZING THE 

INST  ALLA TION AND USE OF A PEN 

REGISTERITRAP  ~ ' 1 D   TRACE DEVICE 

ON  AN  ELECTRONIC  MAll ACCOUNT 

ORDER 

runder Seal) 

1:13  EC a'1'l 

This  matter having come before the Court pursuant  to  an  Application  under  18  U.S.C. 

§ 3122, by  AssiSlant  Uni ted  States Attorney,  an  attorney  for  the Government 

as defined by  Fed.  R. Crim.  P.  I(bXl), requesting an  Order under 18  U.S.C.  § 3123, authorizing 

the  installation  and  use of a pen register and  the  use of a trap  and  trace  device or  process 

("pen/trap device")  on all  electronic: communications being sent from  or sent  to  the account 

associated  is registered to  sullScri!>er 

Lavabit, LLC  (hereinafier referred  to  as  the "SUBJECT ELECTRONIC  MAIL  ACCOUNT"). 

The  Coun finds  that  the  applicant has  certified  that  the  information  likely  to  be  obtained by such 

installation and  use is relevant to  an  ongoing crimina!  investigation  into possible vio!ation(s) of 

18  U.S.C.  §§  641, 793(d)-(e), and  798(a)(3) 

IT  APPEARING  that  the  infonnation  likely  to  be· obtained  by the  penltrap device is 

re!evanl  to  an  ongoing criminal  investigation  of the specified offense; 

IT IS  ORDERED, pursuant 'to  18 U.S.C. § 3123,  that a pet'Jtrap  device may  be  installed 

and  used  by  Lavabit  and  the  Federal  Bureau  of Investigation to  capture  all  non-content  dialing, 

routing,  addressing,  and  signaling  information  (as  described and  limited  in  the Application),  sent 

from  or sent to  the SUBJECT ELECTRONIC MAIL ACCOUNT, to  record the date and time of 

the  initiation  and  receipt  of such transmissions,  to  record the duration  of the  transmissions, and  to 

record  user log-in data (date,  time,  ouration,  and  Internet Protocol  address  of all  log-ins) on the 

SUBJEC, ELECTRONIC MAIL ACCOUNT, all  for  a period of sixty (60) days from  the date of 

such Order or the date the  monitoring equipment becomes operational, whichever occurs later; 

IT  IS  FURTIiER ORDERED,  pursuant to  18  U.S.C.  § 3123(b)(2), that Lavabit shall 

furnish  agents from  the  Federal  Bureau of Investigation, forthwith,  all  information,  facilities,  and 

technical assistance necessary to  accomplish the installation and use of the pen/trap device 

unobtrusively and with minimum interference to  the services that are  accorded persons with 

respect  to whom  the installation  and  use is to  take  place; 

IT IS  FURTHER ORDERED that the  United States 'ake reasonable steps to ensure tha' 

the  monitoring equipment is  not US(x!  to capture any "Subject:" portion cfan electronic mail 

message, which could possibly contain content; 

IT  IS  FURTHER ORDERED that Lavabit shall  be compensated by the Federal Bureau of 

Investigation  for  reasonable            incurred  in  providing technical assistance; 

IT [S  FURTHER ORDERED that, in  the event that  the implementing investigative 

agency seeks to  install and use  its mvn  pen/trap device on a                  data neh'lork of a 

public provider, the United States shall ensure that a record is  maintained which will identify:  (a) 

any ofiicer(s) who installed the  dev.\cc  and  any officer(s) who accessed the device to obtain 

infonnation  from  the network; (b) the date and time the device was installed, the date and time 

the device was  uninstaIled,  and  the date, time,. and duration of each time the device is accessed to 

obtain  infonnatjon; (c) the configuntion of the deviGe at the time of its installation and any 

subsequem modification thereof; and  (d) any information which has  been collected by  the  device. 

To the extent that the pen/trap device can be  set to automatically record  this  infonnarion 

electronically, the record shall be maintained electronically throughout the  installation  and use of 

the  penJrrap device.  Pursuant to  18  U.S.C.  § 31 23(aX3)(B), as amended, such record(s) shall be 

provided ex  parte and under seal  to 'this  Court within 30 days  of the termination of this Order, 

including any extensions thereof; 

IT IS  FURTHER ORDERED, pursu..", to  18  U.S.c. §  3 J23(d), tha' this Order and  the 

Application  be  scaled until  otherwise ordered by the  Court, and that copies  of such Order may be 

furnished  to  the  Federal  Bureau of Investigat.ion, the United  States Attorney's Office,  and 

Lavabil; 

IT IS  FURTHER ORDERED  that  Lavabit shall  not  disclose the exi.stence of the  pen/trap 

device,  or the existence of the                 to any  person, except as  necessary to  effectuate this 

Order, unless or until otherwise ordered by the  Court. 

SO  ORDERED: 

     

lsi 

eresa Carron Buchanan 

United States Magistrate Judge 

00. Theresa C.  Buchanan 

United  States Magistrate Judge 

EXHIBIT 3 

IN  TIfE  UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT  FOR THE 

EASTERN  DISTRICT OF VIRGfNIA 

Alexandria Division 

IN  THE ,vIA HER OF THE  APPLICATION 

OF THE  UNITED STATES  OF AMERlCA 

FOR AN  ORDER AUTHORIZING THE 

fNSTALLATION  AND USE OF A  PEN 

REGTSTERfTRAP A:-JD  TRACE DEVICE 

ON  liN ELECTRONIC  MAIL ACCOUNT 

1:13  EC 297 

MOTION FOR ENTRY OF AN  ORDER TO COMP!':!.. 

lr'  U'          

             

CLERK  U. S.  O-STRICT COuRt 

ALEXAt<CRIA..            

The United States, by and  through       undersigned counsel, hereby requests the Court 

enter an Order directing Lavabit,  LLC,  to  comply  with  the Court's June 28,  2013  Pcn 

Registcrffrap and Trace Order.  In support of the motion the  United Slates declares as  rollows: 

l.  On June 28, 2013, at approximately 4  p.m.,  this Court entered an Order pursuant 

TO  18  U.S.C.  *  3123  authorizing the installation and use o1'a pen register and the  lISC  of a trap and 

trace device ("pen/trap device") on all electronic communications being sent  from  or sent  to  the 

electronic mail  acc,oUl"  That e-mail account is cont rolled by  Lavabit, 

LLC. 

2.  In  its  Order, the Court found  that  the  inionllation to  be  collected  by the pen/trap 

device would be relevant to  an ongoing criminal investigation.  In addition, the Court ordered 

I ,avabit "shall fumish  agents from  the Federal  Bureau of Investigation,  forthwith, all 

information,  facilities,  and  technical assistance necessary to accomplish the installation and  usc 

of the penltmp device." 

3.  The Federal  Bureau of Investigation servcd a copy of the  Order on  Lavabit that 

sam!;!             A  represt:ntative of Lavabit stated thai  it  could not  provide the  requested 

information because the user of the account had  enabled Lavabit's encryption sen"ices, and thus 

Lavabit wou!d  not provide the requested infoIl11<llion.  The representative of Lavabit indicated 

that  Lavabit had [he technical capability to  decrypt the information but that Lavabit did  not  want 

to  "defeat [its]  O\VTl  system." 

4.  The f,::presentative of Lav<lbit  did  not comply with  the  Order, and indicated he 

first wanted  to  seek legal  advice. 

5.  The Pen  Register and Trap and Trace Act gives this Court the authority to order a 

provider to assist the government in the execution of a  la\';ful  pen register or  trap  and trace order, 

including by providing infom1ation.  Section 3122 of Title  18,  United States Code, provides in 

part: "An order issued under this scction-- ...  shall direct,  upon  the request ofthe applicant, the 

furnishing or information,  facilities,  and  teclmical  assistance necessary to  accomplish the 

installation of the pen register or trap and  trace device under section  3124 of this title."  Section 

3124(<1)  provides, "Upon tile request of an  attorney for  the Government or an otriccr of a  law 

enforcement agency authorizcd to install  and use a  pen register under this chapter, a  provider of 

wire or electronic communication service ...  shaH  furnish sllch investi gative or law enforcement 

officer forthwith  nil  information,  facilities, and tcchnical assistance necessary to accomplish thc 

installation of the  pen  register unobtrusively  and  with a  minimum of interrerence . . .  if such 

css:stance is  directed  by  a court  order as  provided  in  section 3 I  23(b)(2) of this  title:'  Section 

3124(b) contains a  similar provision  governing: tmp and  trace orders. 

Wherefore, the  United  States requests  an  Order directing Lavabit to  comply  forthwith 

with  tbe Court's June 28, 2013  OrJer. 

By: 

Respectfully submitted, 

NEIL  H. MACBRIDE 

United States AHolTley 

EXHIBIT 4 

IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  DISTRICT COURT  FOR  THE 

EASTERN  DISTRICT OF  VIRGINIA 

Alexandria Division 

IN  THE  MA ITER OF THE  APPLICATION 

OF THE UNITED STATES  OF  AMERICA 

FOR  AN  ORDER AUTHORIZING THE 

INSTALLATION  AND  USE  OF A PEN 

REGISTERffRAP  AND TRACE  DEVICE 

ON  AN  ELECTRONIC  MAIL  ACCOUNT 

1:13  EC297 

ORDER COMPELLING COMPLIANCE FORTHWITH 

WHEREAS, on June 28, 2013, at approximately 4:00 p.m., this Court entered. an Order 

pursuant to  18 U.S.C.  § 3123  authorizing the  installation and  use of a pen  register and the  use  of 

a trap and  trace  device ("pen/trap device") on  all electronic communications being sent  from  or 

sent to the electronic mail af:counl  which is an e-mail  account 

controlled by  Lavabit, LLC ("Lavabit"); and 

WHEREAS, this Court found  that the  information obtained by  the  pen/trop device would 

be  relevant to an ongoing criminal  investigation; and 

WHEREAS, the Court's Order directed that  Lavabit "shall furnish  agents  from  the 

Federal  Bureau of Investigation, forthwith,  all  information, facilities, and technical assistance 

necessary  to  accomplish the  installation and  use of the pen/trap device;" and 

WHEREAS, Lavabit  informed the:  Federal Bureau of Investigation that the user of the 

account had enabled Lavabit's encryption services and  thus  the  pen/trap device  would not collect 

the  relevant  information; and 

WHEREAS, Lavabit  informed the FBI  that it  had  the  technological capability to obtain 

the infonnation but did  not  want 10  "defeat [its]  ovm  system;" 

~ I  

"  l' 

:.:::, ' i 

IT IS  HEREBY ORDERED that Lavabit LLC  is directed  to comply  forthwith  with  the 

Coun's June 28. 2013 Order. and provide the Federal Bureau of Investigation with unencrypted 

data pursuant to the  Order.  To the extent any information, facilities, or technical assistance are 

under the  control of Lavabit are  needed  to  provide the  FBI  with  the unencrypted data.  Lavabit 

shall  provide such information, facilities, or technical assistance  forthwith. 

Failure  to  comply with  this Order shall subject Lavabit to  any  penalty within the power of 

f" "' ; 1",1; I;                      

the  Court,',            

           

SO  ORDERED, 

       3 

             . 

Han. Theresa C.  Buchanan '  . - . 

United States Magistrate Judge ' . 

,,' 

EXHIBIT 5 

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE 

I  Il  T 

EASTERN DISTRICT OF VlRGINIA 

j: 11

- 9211f3  ,0' 

Alexandria Division 

IN THE MATTER OF 11-IE 

)  FILED UNDER SEAL 

CtERK. u.s. !}ISffilCl {';()(JRT 

               ,/1f?\i'NI,I; 

APPLICA 110N OF THE UNITED 

STATES OF AMERICA FOR AN  ORDER 

AUrnORlZING THE USE OF A PEN 

REGlSTERfTRAP AND TRACE DEVICE 

ON AN ELECTRONlC MAIL ACCOUNT 

)  NO.l:I3EC297 

MOTION OF THE UNITED STATES 

FOR AN  ORDER TO SHOW CAUSE 

The  United States,  through t'he  undersigned counsel, pursuant to  Title  18,  United  States 

Code,  Section 40 I, hereby moves fe-r  the issuance of an order directing Ladar Levison, the owner 

and operator of Lava  bit LLC, an ele-::tronic communications service provider, to  show cause why 

Lavabit LLC has failed  to  comply with  the  orders entered June 28, 2013,  in  this  matter and,  as a 

result, why this Court should  not hold  Mr. Levison and  Lavabit LLC in contempt for  its 

disobedience and resistence to these  lawful orders.  The United States further requests that the 

Court convene a hearing on  this  mOl:ion  on July 16, 2013, at  10;00 a.m., and issue a summons 

directing Mr.  Levison to appear before this  Court on that date.  In support of this  motion, the 

United States represents: 

1.  The United  States is ·:;onducti ng a criminal  investigation 

June  10,2013, the United States obtained 

an  order pursuant to  18  U.S.C. § 2703(d) directing Lavabit LLC  to  provide, within  ten days, 

additional  records and  information 

account.  Mr.  Levison received  that 

order ~ n   June  11,2013.  Mr.  Levison responded by mail,  which was  not  received by the 

government until  June 27, 2013.  Mr. Levison provided  very  little of the infonnation sought by 

the June  10,2013 order. 

3.  On June 28, 2013, th<!  United States obtained a pen register/trap and  trace ordeT  on 

.  account, a copy of which is  attached  together with  the application for  that 

order. 

4.  On June 28, 2013, FBI  special agents met Mr.  Levison at his  residence in Dallas, 

Texas, and  discussed the prior grand jury subpoena served on  Lavabit LLC and  the pen register 

order entered that  day.  Mr.  Levison did  not  have a copy of the order when he spoke with  the 

agents,  but  he received a copy from  the FBI  within a few minutes  of their conversation.  Mr. 

Levison  told  the agents that  he  would  not comply with the pen register order and  wanted to  speak 

to  an  attorney.  It was unclear  whether Mr.  Levison  would  not comply with the  order because it 

was  technically not feasible or difficult or because it  was  not consistent with  his  business practice 

of providing secure,  encrypted email service  for  his customers. 

- 2  -

5.  On June 28, 2013, after th1s  conversation with Mr. Levison, the United  States 

obtained an  Order Compel1ing Compliance forthwith, which directed Lavabit to  comply with the 

pen register order.  Copies of that motion and order are attached. 

6.  Since June 28, 2013, the  FBI  has  made numerous attempts, without success,  to 

speak and  meet directly with  Mr. Levison to  discuss  the  pen  register order and his failure to 

provide "all  information, facilities,  and  technical assistance necessary to accomplish the 

installation and use  of the pen/trap device"  as required  by that order.  As of this  date, Lavabit 

LLC has  not compl ied with the ord'!r. 

7.  The United States requests that the Court enter the attached proposed order 

directing Mr. Levison to show cause why  Lavabit LLC  has failed  to comply with the pen  register 

order and why, therefore, he should  not be held in contempt.  The United  States requests that  this 

show cause hearing be scheduled for  July  16,2013, at 10:00 a.m.,  and that a summons be  issued 

directing Mr . Levison to  appear before this  Court on that date. 

8.  The June 10, 2013  Section 2703(d) Order and the June 28, 2013 pen  register order 

remain under seal.  In            the:;e orders provide that Lavabit LLC shall  not disclose the 

existence of the  govememnt's appLcations  and  the orders to  the sulbs(:ri\ler  to any 

other persons unless otherwise authorized to do so by  court order, except that  Lavabit LLC may 

disclose the  orders to an  attorney for  the purpose of obtaining legal  advice regarding these orders. 

The United States requests that        documents remain under seal, that the non-disclosure 

-)  -

provisions of the  orders remain in  effect, and  that  this  motion and  order and  any  subsequent 

pleadings and/or proceedings  regarding  this  motion also be sealed. 

- 4  -

Respectfully submitted, 

Neil H.  MacBride 

2100 Jamieson A  venue 

Alexandria, Virginia 22314 

Phone:  703-299-3700 

PltOPOSED 

ORDER TO SHOW CAUSE 

IN  THE UNITED STATES  DISTRICT COURT FOR THE 

EASTERN  DISTRICT OF VIRGINlA 

Alexandria Division 

IN  THE  MA TrER OF THE 

AFPLlCA  TION  OF THE  UNITED 

STATES OF AMERICA FOR AN  ORDER 

AUTHORIZING THE USE OF A  PEN 

REGISTERffRAP  AND TRACE DEVICE 

ON AN  ELECTRONIC MAIL ACCOUNT 

)  UNDER SEAL 

)  No.I:I3EC297 

ORDER TO SHOW CAUSE 

Upon motion of the  United States pursuant to  Title  18, United States Code, Section 40 I, 

good cause having been           IT  IS  HEREBY ORDERED: 

I.  Ladar Levison, the o?mer and operator of Lavabit LLC,  an electronic 

corrununications service provider, shall  appear before this Court on July  16, 2013, at  10: 00 a.m. , 

at  which time he  shall show cause why  Lavabit LLC  has  failed  to  comply with the orders entered 

June 28. 2013, in  this matter and  why  this  Court should  not hold  Mr.  Levison and  Lavabit LLC in 

contempt  for  its disobedience and  resistence to  these lawful orders; 

2.  The Clerk's Office shall  issue  a summons for  the appearance of Mr.  Levison on 

July  ]6, 2013, at  10:00 a.m.  The Clerk's Office shall  provide the  Federal Bureau of Investigation 

with a certified copy of the summons  for  service on  Mr.  Levison and  Lavabit  LLC. 

3.  The Federal  Bureau ofTnvestigation shall  serve the summons on  Mr.  Levison 

together with a copy of the Motion  of the United States for  an Order to  Show Cause and a 

certified copy of this Order to  Show Cause. 

4.  The sealing and                  provisions of the  June  10,2013 Section 2703(d) 

order and the  June 28, 2013  pen  register order shall  remain in  full  force  and  effect.  Mr.  Levison 

and  Lavabit LLC  shall  not disclose the existence of these applications,  motions, and court orders, 

including this  Order to  Show Cause,  to  the subscriber or to any other persons  unless  otherwise 

authorized to  do  so  by court order, except  that Lavabit LLC  may  disclose the orders to an 

anomey for the purpose of obtaining legal  advice regarding these orders. 

5.  This Order, the  Motion of the United States for  an  Order to  Show Cause, and any 

sUbsequent  pleadings and  proceedings regarding this  matter sha(J  be  placed under seal  until 

further order of this  Court. 

Entered in  Alexandria, Virginia, this __ day  of July,  2013 

Claude M.  Hilton 

United  States District Judge 

- 2 -

EXHIBIT 6 

IN THE UNITED STATES D1SlRICT COURT FOR THE 

EASTERN D1SlRICT OF VIRGINIA  _. 

.. ,. 

Alexandria Division 

.  IL 

IE 

IN THE MATTER OF THE 

!\PPLICATION OF THE UNITED 

STATES  OF AMERICA FOR A."1  ORDER 

AlITHORlZlNG THE USE OF A  PEN· 

REGISTERITRAP  AND TRJ\CE :)EVICE 

ON AN ELECTRONlC MAIL ACCOUNT 

)  UNDER SEAL 

    H 

..ILL  - 9 21113 

)  No.  1: 1  lEC297 

ORDER TO SHOW CAUSE 

CLERK. U.S.  DlS1HICT  COUll! 

AlOOl'mRtA.          

Upon motion of the United States pursuant to Title  18. United  States Code,  Section 401, 

good cause baving been shown, IT IS  HEREBY ORDERED: 

1.  Ladar Levison, the  owner and operator of Lavabit LLC, an electronic 

communications service provider, :;hall appear before this Court on July 16, 2013, at  10;00 a.m., 

at which time be shall show cause ',Iony  Lavabit LLC bas failed to comply with the  orders entered 

June 28, 201 l, in this matter and why this Court should not hold Mr. Levison and Lavabit LLC  in 

contempt for  its  disobedience and resistencc to these lawful  orders; 

2.  The Clerk's Office sball  issue a summons for  the  appearance afMr. Levison on 

July  16,2013, at  10:00 am.  The Clerk's Office shall provide the Federal Bureau oflnvestigation 

with a certified copy of the summO:.1S  for  service on Mr.  Levison and  Lavabit LLC. 

3.  The  Federal Bureau of Investigation shall serve the summons on Mr.  Levison 

together with a copy of the Motion of the United States for an  Order to  Show Cause and a 

certified copy of this Order to  Show Cause. 

4.  The  sealing and  non·disclosure provisions of the June  10,2013  Section 2703(d) 

order and the June 28, 2013 pen            order  shall  remain in full  force and effect.  :Mr.  Levison 

and Lavabit LLC shall not disclose the  existence of these applications, motions, and court orders, 

including this  Order to Show C a U S l ~ ,   to the subscriber or to  any other persons unless otherwise 

authorized to  do  so by court order, except that Lavabit LLC may disclose the orders to an 

attorney for the purpose of obt.ain.i.ng  legal advice regarding these orders. 

5.  Tbis Order, the Motion of the United Sbtes for  an Order to  Show Cause, and any 

subsequent pleadings and proCeedilJ.gs  regarding this matter shall be placed under seal  until 

further order of this Court. 

Entered in Alexandria, Vir&inia,  this  9'fo--day of July, 2013 

C&. -4 '/4,  d/=...g;;;_. 

Claude M.  Hilton 

United  Stales District Judge 

A TRUE COPY, TESTE: 

CLERK. U.S. DISTRICT ,",VI,Ii"!! 

- 2 -

EXHIBIT 7 

AO  B:I  (It'ev. 061(9)           in  I           Case 

UNITED ST-A"I'Es  DISTRICT COURT 

for the 

Eastern  District of Virginia 

UNDER SEAL 

UniTed  States of America 

v. 

Ladar Levison 

Dl:fr:ruJ.ar1l 

Case No.1: 13ec297 

SUMMONS I N A CR.lMINAL CASE 

YOU ARE SUMMONED to appear before the  United States  district court at  the time, dale,  and place set  forth 

below to  answer to  one or more offenses or violations based on  the  following document  fi led  wi th  the court: 

o Indictment  o  Superseding Indictment  o Information  0  Superseding Information  o  Complaint 

o Probation Violation Petition  0  Supervised  Release  Violation  Petition  0  Violation Notice  i8I  Order of Court 

f

--------------------------------------------.-----------------------------. 

Place:  401  Courthouse  Square  Courtroom No.:  8(X).  Judge  Hillan 

AJexandria, VA 22.,14 

Date and Time:  7/16/13  @  10:00  am 

This offen<>e is brieDy  described as follows: 

See Attached  Order 

Date:  0710912013 

Deputy Clerk 

Primed /lame and title 

I declare under penalry of perjury that  I have: 

o  Executed  and  returned  this summons  o  Returned  this summons unexecuted 

A TRUE COPY, TESTE: 

CLERK, U.S. DISTRICT cOt'q 

Date: 

DEPU 1,· CWiK 

Printed name and title 

EXHIBIT 8 

""0  t 10  (!WI. 01!()9)  S:.tbpocna 10  Tcst!1'y  aelb:e,     Jury 

TO: 

DaHas, TX  75204 

United States District Court 

"" ., 

Eastern District of Virginia 

SUBPOENA TO TESTIFY BEFORE THE GR,.-\ND  JURY 

YOU  ARECQMMA.,'lDED 10 appear and  testify before !be Uoited States district court at the time,  date.;me 

place shown below to lesify before the court's grand jury.  When  you  arrive, you must  remain at the  C::Ill"  until  the 

j udge or II  court offioer allows yO\!  to leave. 

Pltte:  UNITED ST A  YES DlSTRlCT COURT 

     COllrthouseSqulrf 

Alex8ndriJ. Vir,inI8l2314 

II:  tnd Time:  July  lG,  lUll 

________________  J-____  __ 

You  mUll also brin&  with)'O\l  the  folJowill&  docume:1ts.                l10red  lnformu ion.  or objecu 

(bll!!'.K  ifr.Ol  "?plica.bl,,): 

9:30 AM 

In  .. ddifion  to your !,l:"l'SunHI"flpear"nce,you arc direeled  to  b ring  10  the grano jury the  public  lind  private 

encryptiun I;c)'5  used  by  l:.Ivabil.CQn.  in  any SSl.. (See orl!  S<:>ekel  L:.I,,<!r)  or TLS (Tr:u"pon Secllrlty  I...'lyer) 

session$, inciudln: HTrrS           with  dients  usin: the !lIvabil.com  web  site  lind  enl"rYflled  SMTP 

                 (or  Imcrnct                          other- protocols)       mail lCrvCr.;; 

Any utt:cr  in form:Hl on  necessary  to               tht insull2t1on :lncl  use of tile  ptnltrap device ordered  by 

Jud?;e  BIlc;h"nnn  011  June  28, 2013, unubtrusively  :o nd  wiln  minimum ;nt enerenl:"t to  the  serviee"  th2t arc 

>lctorded  persons with  respect 10  whom  Ihe  inst:lllati(ln  and  use illo take  place; 

If such  information  i3  electronically slof'1:d  or unable  to    physically transported  to the ;:rand  jury, you 

mtty  provide     co fly  of t be information  to  the  Feder  ... l  BurtllU  of                  Provi$ion of tlds  illformalion 

to  tile  FBr        nOt  excuse  your  personal appellnlnce. 

Julv  (I  2013  CL£RJ( 

·f'!.c  n&me,  lId=, emai l.Md!el-:phonenu.mbecofthcUr.ill:d StIIleS                       United            

requests  thi s             tL"t': 

           

JU.Ul1  W.  Wi1li" m$l;"ittd         Attonu,.'s SII,hljn: 

]  [00            ,\Venlle 

,\ll·  .•                            p03} 299·nOO 

-_  ... - ...... . 

PROOF  OF  SERVICE 

This subpoena for  (name of individ'ual  or organization)     IV g.J     lev-! Yv-... 

     received by me on  (date)  J"k\Ak,  1/  (  hi'!" 

Vl-1 personally served the  subpoena on  the individual at  , 

--.£4,...Ala5.  I  ux-0  on 

o  lief\: the subpoena at 1t.e !ndMdual's residence or usual p!acs of abode with (name) 

'i:iie>==========='  a person of suit2b!e age  and discretion....no          mere,  on 

(date)  , and  mailed a copy to  the individual's last known address;  or 

Ci  J served ttle SUbpoeM on (name of i nkHVidual)-,::;:-:-;::::.-::<c;:-:-.:::-::;-:c=:-:o::::;,,,,,,  __  " who  is 

designaied by laW  to accept service of process On  behalf of (name of organization) 

____ ____________  ,--___  -'00 (date) _____    

L1  1 returned the subpoena  unexecuted becau5e  __________________  ,; or 

n  Other (specify): 

I declare under the penalty of perjury r."at this  informetion is true. 

Date:      II  "7-"9,  '3 

Additional information  regarding  attempted             etc: 

EXHIBIT 9 

.... 0  oJ  (Rn.  12109)  S('an;h and S('izurc  Wamnl 

UNOEnSEAL 

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 

for the 

Eastern  District of Virginia 

In  the Matter of the  Search of 

(Briefly ducrifn Ihe property /0  be narcMd 

.  and address) 

CONTROLLED BY  LAVABIT, LLC 

Case No.1: 13SW522 

SEARCH AND  SEIZURE WARRANT 

To:  Any  authorized  law  ct:Jforcement officer 

An  application  by a fedcrallaw enforcement officer or an  attorney  for  thc government requests  the search 

of the following person or property  located  in  the  Northem  District of  Texas 

(identify the person or describe the  properry  10 be searched ond give lIS  focal/on): 

See Attachment A 

The  person or property to be searched, described  above,  is  belieVed. to  conceal (identify Ihe person  or describe  Ihe 

property 10  b, !I!ll:ed): 

See Attachment 6 

1 find  that the  affidavit(s), or any  recorded testimony. establish probable cause to  scarch  and  seize  the  person  or 

property. 

YOU ARE COMMANDED to  execute this warrant on or before 

o  in  the  daytime  6:00  a.m.  to  10  p.m. 

(nOl/o e:xceed 14      

(!1'  at any  time  in  the day or night as  1 find  reasonable cause  has  been 

establ ished. 

Unless delayed  notice  is  authorized  below,  you  must give a copy  of the warrant and  a  receipt for  the  property 

taken  to the  person from  whom,  or from  whose premises, the  property  was taken,  or leave the  copy  and  receipt at  the 

place where the property  was  taken. 

The officer executing this warrant, or an officer present during the execution of the  warrant,  must prepare an 

inventory as required  by  law and promptly  rerum  this warrant and  inventory  to Uni ted  States  Magistrate judge 

The Honorable  Claude M.  Hilton 

(name) 

o  1 find  that  immediate  notification  may  have an  adverse  result listed  in  18  U.S.C.  § 2705 (except fordeJay 

oftTi al). and  authorize  the officer executing this warrant  to  delay notice to  the  person  who, or whose  property, will be 

searched or seized          Ihe  appropriale      O f or  days (not to t:iCctl' :d 30). 

C1until, the  facts justifYing,  the  later specific date  of 

Date and  t;me          '(-.  ?-OI:S 

City  and  state:              V!rgin'";a'-__  _ 

Judge's signature 

The Honorable Claude M.  Hilton,  U.S. District  Judge 

Printed name and rille 

ATTACHMENT A 

Property to  Be Searched 

This warrant applies  to  infonnation associated  with  that is 

stored at premises controlled by Lavabit, LLC,  a company that accepts  service of legal  process  at 

Dallas, Texas, 75204. 

ATTACHMENT B 

Particular Things to  be Seized 

1.  Information to  be disclosed  by Lavabit, LLC (the ;;Provider") 

To the extent that the  information described in  Attaclunent A is  within the possession, 

custody, or control  of the Provider, including any  emaiis.records.fiies. logs, or infonnation that 

has  been deleted but  is still  available to the Provider, the Provider is required to  disclose the 

following information to  the  government for  each account or identifier listed in  Anachroent A: 

a.  All  infonnation necessary to decrypt communications sent to  or from  the Lavabit 

e-mail .C"OUl]!  including encryption keys  and SSL keys; 

b.  All  information necessary to  decrypt data stored in or otherwise associated with 

the Lavabit account 

II.  Information to  be seized  by the government 

AIl  information  described above in Section I  . ~ a t   constitutes fruits,  contraband, evidence 

and  insuumentalities of violations of 18  U.S.C.  tbose 

violations invoh'ing  inclu<!in!l,  for  each account or identifier listed on 

Attachment A,  information pertaining to  the  following mauers: 

a.  All  information necessary to  decrypt corrununications sent to or from the  Lavabit 

e· mail  account  including encryption keys and  SSL keys; 

b.  All  information necessary to  decrypt data stored in  or otherwise associated with 

the Lavabit 'cc,own 

CERTIFICATE OF AUTHENTICITY OF DOMESTIC 

BUSINESS RECORDS PURSUANT TO FEDERAL RULE 

OF EVIDENCE 902(11) 

I,  _______________  , anest, under penalties of perjury under  the 

laws of the United  States of A.menca pursuant to  28  U .S.C. §  1746, that the information 

contained in  this  declaration is true and correct.  I am  employed  by  Lavabit,  LLC, and my 

official title is _____________  '  I am  a custodian of records for  Lavabit, 

LLC.  1 state that each of the records attached hereto is  the original  record or a true duplicate of 

the original  record  in the  custody of Lavabit,  LLC, and that 1 am the custodian of the attached 

records  consisting of _____ (pages/CDslkilobytes).  I Willer state that: 

a.  all records attached to  this  certificate were made at or near the time of the 

occurrence of the matter set fO[1".h,  by, or from information transmitted by, a person with 

knowledge of those  matters; 

b.  such  records were kept in the  ordina.ry  course of a regularly conducted business 

activity of Lavabir,  L L C ~   and 

c.  such records  were made by  Lavabit,  LLC as a regular practice. 

I further  state that this certification is  intended to  satisfy Rule 902( II) of the Federal 

Rules of Evidence. 

Date  Signature 

EXHIBIT  10 

UNDER  SEAL 

UNITED STATES  DlSTRlCT COURT 

EASTERN DlSTRlCT OF  VlRGlN1A 

Alexandria Division 

IN  THE MATTER OF THE SEARCH OF 

CONTROLLED BY LA V ABIT, LLC 

ORDER  TO SEAL 

The Ul\'ITED STATES, pursuant to  Local  Rule 49(B) of the Local  Criminal Rules  for 

the United  States District Court for the  Eastern District of Virginia,  having moved to  seal  the 

application for a  search warrant, the search warrant, t he  affidavit  in support of the search 

warrant, the· Motion to  Seal,  and proposed Order in this  matter; and 

The COURT,  baving considered the government's submissions, including the facts 

presented by  the government to justify sealing;  baving found that revealing the material sought 

to  be  sealed would jeopardize an ongoing criminal investigation;  having considered the 

available alternatives that are less drastic than sealing, and finding  none would suffice to protect 

the government's legitimate interest in concluding the investigation; and  having found  that this 

legitimate govenunent interest outweighs at this time any  interest in the disclosure of the 

material;  it is  hereby 

ORDERED, ADJUDGED,  and DECREED that,  the  application for search wamnt, the 

search warrant, the  affidavit in support of the search warrant,  Motion to Seal, and this Order be 

sealed until further Order by the Court.  It  is  further ordered that law enforcement officers may 

serve a copy of the warrant on the occupant of the premises as  required  by Rule 41  of the  Fed. 

R.  of Crim.  Proc. 

Date  ~   /I?  (  261  

.  ex  dria,  V(rginia 

~ 4 e - ~ - ~ 4 .  

The Honorable Claude M.  HiltOn 

United  States District Judge 

EXHIBIT  11 

         

IN THE UNITED  STATES DISTRlCT COURT 

FOR THE EASTERN DfSTRlCT OF VlRGINIA_ 

IN  RE:  APPLICATION  OF  THE UNITED  Case No.  1:13SW522 

STATES  OF AMERlCA FOR A.N  ORDER  Filed  Under Seal 

PURSUA.NTTO  18 U.S.C.  § 2705(b) 

    .J--n-- . IL      

JUL  1'6'2013  IIJI 

         

CURY.., us. Or3!ilI Cl          : 

Al::XAIi!;Rlii . vtRr.!O'if.  ORDER 

The United States has submitted  an  application pursuant to  18  U.S.C.  § 2705(b), 

requesting that the Court issue an Order corrunancling Lavabit, an electronic communications 

service provider and/or a remote computing service, not to  notify any person (including the 

subscribers or customers of the account(s)  listed in the  search warrant) oftbe existence of the 

attached search warrant until further order of the Court . 

The Court determines that there  is  reason to  believe that  notification of the existence of 

the attached warrant  will  seriously jeopardize the investigation,  including by  giving targets an 

opportunity to  flee or continue flight  from prosecution, destroy or tamper with evidence, cha.'lgc 

patterns of behavior,  or notify conlederates.  See  18  U.S.C.  § 2705(b)(2), (3),  (5). 

IT IS  THEREFORE ORDERED \Loder  18  U.S.C. § 2705(b) that Lavabit shall not 

disclose the existence of the attached search warrant, or this Order of the Court, to  the  listed 

subscriber or to any other person, unless and  until  otherwise authorized to do  so  by the Court, 

except that Lavabit may disclose the attached search warrant to  an attorney for  Lavabit for the 

purpose of receiving legal advice. 

IT lS  FURTHER ORDERED that  the application and this Order  are sealed until 

otherwise ordered  by the Court. 

&CU.&...  h .  ;£u;:..... 

The Honorable Claude M. Hilton 

United  States  District Judge 

EXHIBIT  12 

IN THE UNITED  STATES  DISTRICT COURT FOR 

EASTER.N  DISTRICT OF VIRGINlA 

Alexandria Division 

CLERK.  u. s.           CCURT 

IN THE MATTER OF THE 

APPLICATION  OF THE  UNITED 

STATES  OF AMERICA  fOR AN ORDER 

AUTHORIZING THE USE OF A  PEN 

REGISTERffRAP AND TRACE DEVICE 

ON  AN  ELECTRONIC MAIL ACCOUNT 

)  FJLED UNDER SEAL''---

)  NO.I:IJEC297 

AI             ,.'  r,!:;>':'.1 

SUPPLEMENT TO THE MOTION OF THE  UNITED STATES 

FOR AN  ORDER TO SHOW CAUSE 

The United States,  through the undersigned counsel, submits the following additional 

infonnation in  support of its  show cause motion filed  July  9,  2013 : 

1.  Following the issuance of the  Court's  Order to  Show Cause, the government had  a 

meeting/conference call  with tvlr.  Levison <l..'1d  his then  counsel.  Mr.  Levison was in Dallas, 

Texas, at the PBI  field  office, at the  time,  and  his  counsel from  San Francisco,  California, and 

prosecutors and FBI  agents from the Washington, D.C. field  office participated by  telephone. The 

conference call  was convened  to  discuss Mr.  Levison's questions and concerns about the 

installation and operation of a  pen register on the targeted  email account.  Mr.  Levison's 

concerns focused  primarily on  how the  pen  register device would be  installed on  the Lavabit LLC 

system, what data would be captured by the device, what data  would  be viewed and  preserved  by 

the government.  The parties also discussed whether Mr.  Levison would  be able to  provide 

"keys" for encrypted information. 

2.  During the  conference call, the FBI explained  to  Mr.  Lcvison that the  pen register 

could  be  installed with minimal  impact to  the Lavabit LLC system, and  the  agents told  Mr. 

Levison that  they  would meet  with  him  when  they  were  ready  to  install  the device and  go  over 

with  him  any of the technical details regarding the  installation and  use of the  pen  regi ster.  As  for 

the data collected  by the device,  the agents  assured Mr.  Levison that  the only data that  the  agents 

would  review  is that which  is stated in  the order and  nothing more (i.e.,  user log-in information 

and  the  date,  time, and duration of the  transmissions for  the  target account). 

3.  Lavabit LLC  provides encryption service to  paid  users 

Based 

on the  conference call with  Mr.  Levison, the FBI  is  reasonably confident that with  the encryption 

keys,  which Mr. Levison can access,  it would be able  view in  an  un-encrypted  format  any 

encrypted  information required  to  be  produced  through  the  use of the  pen register. 

4.  Mr. Levison and rus  attorney did not  commit to  the  installation and  lise  of the pen 

register at  the  conclusion of the  July  10  conference call.  On  July  11,2013, counsel  who 

participated  in  the conference call  informed the government that  she no  longer represented Mr. 

Levison or Lavabit LLC.  In addition, Mr.  Levison indicated that he  would not come to  court 

unless  the government paid for  his travel. 

5.  On July  11,2013, FBI agents served  Mr.  Levison with  a grand jury subpoena 

directing him to  appear before the grand jury in this  district on  July  16,  2013.  As  a grand jury 

witness, the government was responsible for making Mr.  Levison's travel arrangements. 

6.  On July  11,  2013, the undersigned counsel  sent Mr.  Levison an  email  indicating 

that  he has  been served  with a show cause order from  this  Court requiring his  appearance on  July 

16,2013, and a subpoena requiring his  appearance on  the  same date  before a federal  grand jury. 

The email  further  advised Mr.  Levison that  he should contact the United  States Attorney's Office 

as  soon as  possible to  make  his travel arrangements. 

- 2  -

7.  On July  13,2013, Mr.  Levison, who  was  no  longer represented  by counsel. sent 

government prosecutors an  email  indicating that he  would be able to collect the data required  by 

the pen  register and  provide that data to the government after 60  days  (the period of the pen 

register order).  For this service, Mr.  Levison  indicated that  the government would have  to  pay 

him  $2000  for "developmental time and  equipment" plus  an additional  $1500 if the government 

wanted  the  data "more frequently" than after 60  days. 

8.  On  July  13,  2013, the government responded to  Mr.  Levison's proposal.  The 

prosecut.ors  informed Mr.  Levison that  the pen register is  a devise used  to monitor ongoing email 

traffic on  a reaHime basis  and  providing the FBI  with  data after 60  days  was  not  sufficient. 

Furthermore, prosecutors informed him that the statute authorizes the government  to  compensate 

a service provider for "reasonable expenses,"  and  the  amount he  quoted did  not appear to  be 

reasonable.  Mr.  Levison  responded by email  stating that the  pen  register order,  in his  opinion, 

does  not  requjre real·time access (although this fact  was discussed at length during the July  10 

conference call).  Moreover, he indicated that the  cost of reissuing the "SSL certificate" (for 

encryption service) would be  $2000.  It was  unclear in his  email  if this  $2000  was  an additional 

expense to be added  to the $3500 previously claimed.  Mr. Levison indicated that  he  would try to 

contact the  person responsible  for  making his  travel  arrangements at the  United States Anomey's 

office on Sunday afternoon. 

9.  On July  15,  2013, Mr.  Levison spoke with  the person responsible for  making  his 

travel  arrangements.  He was  told  that  he  was booked on  a flight  from  Dallas, Texas, 10  R ~ a g a n  

National  Airport  departing that same evening.  He also  had a  hotel  reservation.  Mr.  Levison 

indicated 

- 3 -

10.  The proceeding before the Court today  is  to determi ne  whether Lavabit LLC and 

Mr. Levison should  be held in civil contempt.  Civil  contempt, as  compared to  criminal contempt 

under rule 42  of the  Federal  Rules of Cri minal  Procedure, is  intended to  coerce compliance with 

a court order.  There are four elements to civi l contempt:  (I) the existence of valid order of which 

Lavabit LLC  and  Mr.  Levison  had  actual  or constructive knowledge; (2)  the  order was  in the 

government's "favor"; (3) Lavabit LLC and  Mr. Levison violated the terms of the  order and  had 

knowledge. or constructive knowledge, of such violation;  and (4) the government suffered harm 

as  a result.  In  re  Grand Jury Subpoena (T-112),  597  FJd 189,202 (4th  Cir.  2012). 

11 .  Here, each of these elements has been  met.  Lavabit LLC, through direct 

communication between the government and  Mr.  Levison, its  owner and operator, has  had  actual 

knowledge of the  pen register order and  the  sUbsequent  June  28  order of the magistrate judge 

compelling compliance with that order.  This  Court's show cause order, which  was  personally 

served on  Mr.  Levison,  provided further notice of the  violation of those orders by  Lavabit LLC. 

The government clearly has suffered harm  in  that it  has  lost  20 days  of i.nfonnation as  a result  of 

non-compliance. 

12.  Lavabit  LLC  Illay comply with  the pen  register order  by  simply allowing the  FBI 

to  install  the  pen  register devise and  provide the FBI  with the encryption keys.  If Lavabit LLC 

informs the Court it  will  comply with  the order, the government will  not seek sanctions.  If, 

however, Mr.  Levison  informs the Court that Lavabit LLC  will  not  comply, tht government 

requests that the  Court  impose a fine  of $1 000 per day,  commencing July  17, 2013, until  Lavabit 

LLC  fully  complies with the pen  register order. 

13 .  To the extent that  Lavabit LLC  takes the  position that the  pen register does not 

- 4 -

authorize the production of the  encryption keys,  the government has asked the  Court to authorize 

the seizure of that  information pursuant to  a warrant under Title  18,  United States Code, Seclion 

2703, thus rendering this argument moot. 

14.  The Court has sealed this  proceeding.  This pleading has also  been filed  under seal. 

The United  States will  hand deliver a  copy of this  pleading to Mr.  Levison at today's hearing. 

- 5 -

Respectfully submitted, 

Neil H.  MacBride 

Attorney's Building 

2100 Jamieson Avenue 

Alexandria, Virginia 22314 

Phone:  703-299-3700 

EXHIBIT  13 

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UNITED  STATES  DISTRI CT  COURT 

EASTERN  DISTRICT  OF  VIRGINIA 

ALEXANDRIA  DIVISION 

IN  THE  MATTER  OF  THE 

APPLICATION  OF  THE  UNITED 

STATES  OF  AMERICA  FOR  AN 

ORDER  AUTHORIZING  THE 

INSTALLATION  AND  USE  OF  F. 

PEN  REGISTER/TRAP  AND  TRF£E 

DEVICE  ON  AN  ELECTRONIC 

M.D.IL  ACCOUNT 

1013  EC  297 

)  . UNDER  SEAL 

Alexandria,  Virginia 

July  16,  2013 

10 : 41  a . m. 

TRANSCRIPT  OF  HEARING 

BEFORE  THE  HONORABLE  CLAUDE  M.  HILTON 

UNITED  STATES  DISTRICT  JUDGE 

19  APPEARANCES , 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

For  the  United  States : 

For  the  Respondent : 

Court  Reporter : 

James  Trump,  Esq. 

Andrew  Peterson,  Esq. 

Brandon  Van  Grack,  Esq. 

Michael  Ben'Ary,  Esq . 

Ladar  Levison,  Respondent 

Tracy  L.  Westfall,  RPR,  CMRS,  CCR 

Proceedings  reported  by  machine  shorthand,  transcript  produced 

25  by  computer-aided  transcription . 

Tracy  L.  Westfall  OCR-USOC/EDVA 

ONDER  SEAL 

PRO  C  E  E  0  I  N  G  S 

THE  CLERK :  In  Re:  Case  No .  1 : 13  EC  297 . 

3  MR .  TRUMP :  Good  morning ,  Judge .  Jim  Trump  on  behalf 

4  of  the  United  States .  Wi th  me  is  Andy  Peterson,  Brandon 

5  Van  Grack  from  the  United  States  Department  of  Justice , 

6  Mr .  Ben'Ary  behind  me ,  and  Matt  Braverman,  special  agent  for  the 

7  FBI . 

10  summons . 

11 

12 

THE  COURT :  All  right. 

MR .  LEVISON :  Ladar  Levis on,  the  subject  of  the 

THE  COURT :  All  right.  Mr.  Trump . 

MR .  TRUMP:  Your  Honor,  we  submitted  our  supplemental 

13  paper  this  morning  describing  the  communication  we've  had  with 

14  Lavabit,  LLC,  through  Mr .  Levison .  And  I  thi n k,  very  simply,  we 

15  would  like  this  Court  t o  inquire  of  Mr .  Levison  whether  he 

16  intends  to  comply  with  t he  pen  register  order  which  would 

17  require  him  to  allow  the  FBI  access  to  his  server  to  install  a 

18  device  which  will  ext ract  data,  filter  that  data,  and  provide 

19  that  data  to  the  FBI,  and  to  provide  the  FBI  with  the  encryption 

20  keys  to  the  extent  there  is  encrypted  information,  included 

21  among  within  the  body  of  information  called  f or  by  the  pen 

22  register  order . 

23  As  the  Court  is  aware ,  and  as  we  will  provide  with 

24  Mr .  Levison ,  we  obtai ned  a  search  \varrant  this  morning  from  Your 

25  Honor  for  the  same  encryption  keys .  Thus,  to  t he  extent  there ' s 

Tracy  L.  We5tfall  OCR-VSOC/ EDVA 

UNDER  SEAL 

1  any  question  as  to  whether  Mr.  Levison  would  be  required  to 

2  provide  these  keys,  it ' s  now  subject  both  to  the  pen  register 

3  order  and  the  search  warrant ,  the  seizure  warrant . 

That's  where  we  stand,  Your  Honor.  If  Mr .  Levison 

5  agrees  to  comply  with  the  order,  we  would  not  seek  any 

6  sanctions .  We  would  ask  that  he  be  directed  to  forthwith  make 

7  his  servers  available  so  the  FBI  can  install  that  device  and  to 

8  extract  the  encryption  keys . 

9  If,  however,  he  informs  the  Court  he  is  not  willing  to 

10  comply  with  the  order,  we  would  ask  the  Court  to  impose 

11  sanctions .  We  suggested  in  our  pleading  a  thousand  dollars  a 

12  day  to  be  paid  to  the  United  States  government  until  he 

13  complies.  If  he  doesn ' t  comply  with  that  sanction,  then  we 

14  would  be  back  in  court  seeking              sanctions  or  charging 

15  additional  offenses. 

16 

17 

THE  COURT :  All  right .  Mr .  Levison . 

MR.  LEVISON:  Good  morning,  Your  Honor.  I' m  not  sure 

18  what  order  I  should  make  these  in,  but  I  would  like  to  request  a 

19  couple  of  things  by  motion . 

20  I'd  like  to  move  that  all  of  the  nonsensitive  portions 

21  of  the  documents  that  were  provided,  i . e . ,  everything  except  the 

22  account  in  question,  be  unsealed.  I  believe  it's  important  for 

23  the  industry  and  the  people  to  understand  what  the  governmenL  is 

24  requesting  by  demanding  that  I  turn  over  these  encryption  keys 

25  for  the  entire  service . 

Tracy  L.  We3tfall  OCR-UeOC!EDVA 

ONDER  SEAL 

1  THE  COURT :  All  right.  What  do  you  say  to  that, 

2  Mr.  Trump?  Deal  with  the  motions  before  I  __ 

MR .  TRUMP :  What  Mr.  Levison  is  trying  to  do,  Your 

4  Honor,  is  invite  industry  to  come  in  and  litigate  as  a  surrogate 

5  for  him  the  issue  of  whether  the  encryption  keys  are  part  and 

6  parcel  of  the  pen  register  order .  And  that's  one  of  the  reasons 

7  we  sought  the  search  warrant ,  to  make  it clear,  whether  through 

8  the  search  warrant  or  pen  register  order,  he  is  required  to 

9  provide  these  keys . 

10  We  knoH  he's  been  in  contact  with  attorneys  who  also 

11  represent  industry  groups  and  others  who  have  litigated  issues 

12  like  this  in  the  WikiLeaks  context  and  others .  But  we  would 

13  object  to  unsealing  this  matter  because  it ' s  just  Mr.  __ 

14 

THE  COURT :  And  they've  done  that  in  connection  with 

15  the  issuance  of  a  pen  register? 

16  MR .  TRUr-1P :  They  have  litigated  privacy-related  issues 

17  in  the  context  of  process  under  2703 .  I'm  not  sure  -- not  a  pen 

18  register,  but  with  respect  to  2703 . 

19 

But  we  discussed  this  issue  with  Mr.  Levison  and  his 

20  counsel  by  confer ence  call .  We  indicated  that  the  only  data 

21  that  the  government  seeks  is  that  which  is  r equired  by  the  pen 

22  register  order .  That  it's  just  the  basic  header  to  e-mail 

23  traffic,  sender,  recipient,  time,  duration,  that  sort  of  thing . 

24  If  Mr .  Levison  wants  to  object  to  providing  the  keys, 

25  he  can  certainly  object  to  doing  that  and  then  we  can  proceed 

       L.            OCR-OSOC/EOVh 

UNDER  SEAL 

1  from  there,  but  I  don ' t  think  he ' s  entitled  to  try  to  make  this 

2  a  public  proceeding  to  invite  others  in  to  litigate  those  issues 

3  on  his  behalf . 

THE  COURT :  All  right .  Well,  I  believe  that  to  be 

5  correct .  I  mean,  this  is  a  criminal  investigation .  A  pen 

6  register  has  been  ordered  and  is  here  at  issue,  and  any  motion 

7  to  unseal  that  will  be  denied . 

8  You  said  you  had  another  motion,  I  believe? 

9  MR .  LEVISON:  Yeah .  My  issue  is  only  with  the  SSL 

10  keys.  So  if  that  is  litigated  separately  and  that  portion  of 

11  the  proceeding  is  unsealed ,  I ' m  comfortable  with  that . 

12 

THE  COORT :  I  don't  understand  what  you're  saying, 

13  separate  proceedings . 

14  MR .  LEVISON :  Sorry .  I  have  always  agreed  to  the 

15  installation  of  the  pen  register  device .  I  have  only  ever 

16  objected  to  turning  over  the  SSL  keys  because  that  '  .... ould 

17  compromise  all  of  the  secure  communications  in  and  out  of  my 

18  net'  .... ork,  including  my  own  administrative  traffic. 

19  THE  COURT :  Well ,  didn ' t  my  order  already  include  that? 

20  MR .  LEVISON :  I  do  not  believe  so,  sir . 

21 

THE  COURT :  Did  my  initial  order  -- I  don ' t  recall  at 

22  the  moment .  Did  my  initial  order  recall  the  encrypted  devices 

23  with  the  installation  of  a  pen  register ? 

24 

MR .  TRUMP :  The  pen  register ,  as  issued,  just  required 

25  all  assistance,  technical  assistance,  facilities,  and 

Tracy  L.  liostfall  OCR-USDC/'ZOVA 

UNDER  SEAL 

1  information,  to  facilitate  the  pen  register . 

2  This  morning  the  search  warrant  required 

THE  COURT :  Yeah,  but  the  search  warrant's  a  different 

4  matter  now .  That ' s  not  before  me  this  morning .  The  only  ching 

5  that's  before  me  this  morning  is  the  pen  register . 

MR .  TRUMP :  Correct . 

THE  COURT:  So  as  I  understand  it,  my  initial  order 

8  ordered  nothing  but  that  the  pen  register  be  put  in  place. 

MR .  TRUMP :  And  all  technical  assistance,  information, 

10  and  facilities  necessary  to  implement  the  pen  register .  And 

11  it's  our  position  t hat  without  the  encryption  keys,  the  data 

12  from  the  pen  register  will  be  meaningless.  So  to  facilitate  the 

13  actual  monitoring  required  by  the  pen  register,  the  FBI  also 

14  requires  the  encryption  keys . 

15  THE  COURT:  Well,  that  could  be,  but  I  don't  know  that 

16  I  need  - - I  don ' t  know  that  I  need  to  reach  that  because  I've 

17  issued  a  search  warrant  for  that . 

18  MR.  TRUMP :  Correct,  Your  Honor.  That  the  -- to  avoid 

19  litigating  this  issue,  we  asked  the  Court  to  enter  the  seizure 

20  warrant. 

21  THE  COURT :  Well,  what  I ' m  saying  is  if  he  agrees  that 

22  the  pen  register  be  established,  and  that  the  only  thing  he 

23  doesn't  want  to  do  in  connection  with  the  pen  register  is  to 

24  give  up  the  encryption  device  or  code 

25 

MR.  LEVISON :  I've  always  maintained  that . 

Tracy  L.  W e ~ t f a l l   OCR-USDC/EDVA 

UNDER  SEAL 

THE  COURT :  -- so  we ' ve  got  no  issue  here .  You're 

2  ready  to  do  that? 

3  MR.  LEVISON:  I ' ve  been  ready  to  do  that  since  Agent 

4  Howard  spoke  to  me  the  first  time . 

THE  COURT:  All  right .  So  that  ends  our  --

MR .  TRUMP :  Well,  then  we  have  to  inquire  of 

7  Mr,  Levison  whether  he  ...  Jill  produce  the  encryption  keys  pursuant 

8  to  the  search  warrant  that  Your  Honor  just  signed. 

9  THE  COURT :  But  I  can't  deal  with  that  this  morning, 

10 

11 

can  I? 

MR .  TRUMP :  Well ,  it ' s  the  same  issue .  You  could  ask 

12  him,  Your  Honor .  We  can  serve  him  with  the  warrant  and  ask  him 

13  if  he' 5  going  to  comply  rather  than  - -

14  MR.  LEVISON :  Your  Honor

I've  also  been  issued  a 

15  subpoena  demanding  those  same  keys,  which  I  brought  with  me  in 

16  the  event  that  we  would  have  to  address  that  subpoena . 

17  THE  COURT :  I  don't  know,  Mr .  Trump .  I  don't  think  I 

18  want  to  get  involved  in  asking  him.  You  can  talk  with  him  and 

19  see  whether  he ' s  going  to  produce  them  or  not  and  let  him  tell 

20  you .  But  I  don ' t  think  I  ought  to  go  asking  what  he's  going  to 

21  do  and  what  he's  not  going  to  do  because  I  can ' t  take  any  action 

22  about  it  anyway . 

23  If  he  does  not  comply  with  the  subpoena,  there  are 

24  remedies  for  that  one  way  or  another . 

25 

MR .  TRUMP:  Well,  the  original  pen  register  order  was 

Tracy  L.  ~ l e s t f a l l   OCR.-lISDC/EDV1\. 

ONDER  SEAL 

1  followed  by  a  compulsion  order  from  Judge  Buchanan .  The 

2  compulsion  order  required  the  encr yption  keys  to  be  produced . 

3  So ,  yes,  part  of  the  show  c ause  order  i s  to  require 

4  compliance  both  with  the  pen  register  order  and  the  compulsion 

5  order  issued  by  Judge  Buchanan . 

6  And  that  order,  which  was  attached  to  the  show  cause 

7  order,  states,  "To  the  extent  any  information,  facili ties ,  or 

B  technical  assistance  are  under  the  control  of  Lavabit  are  needed 

9  to  provide  the  FBI  with  the  encrypted  data,  Lavabit  shall 

10  provide  such  information,  facilities,  or  technical  assistance 

11  forthwith ." 

12 

MR.  LEVISON :  I  would  object  to  that  statement .  I 

13  don ' t  know  if  I ' m  wording  this  correctly,  but  what  was  in  that 

14  order  to  compel  was  a  statement  that  was  incorr ect . 

15  Agent  Howard  seemed  to  believe  that  I  had  the  ability 

16  to  encrypt  the  e -mail  content  stored  on  our  servers ,  which  is 

17  not  the  case .  I  only  have  the  keys  that  govern  communications 

18  into  and  out  of  the  network,  and  those  keys  are  used  to  secure 

19  the  traffic  for  all  users,  not  just  the  user  in  question . 

20  So  the  statement  in  that  order  compelling  me  to  decrypt 

21  stuff  and  Agent  Howard  stating  that  I  have  t he  ability  to  do 

22  that  is  techni cally  fa l se  or  incorrect.  There  was  never  an 

23  explicit  demand  that  I  turn  over  these  keys . 

24 

THE  COURT :  I  don

1

t  know  what  bearing  that  would  have, 

25  would  it?  I  mean,  I  don1t  have  a  problem  -- Judge  Buchanan 

'rr/lCY  L.  We::ltfall  OCR-I.iSDCJEDVA 

UNDER  SEAL 

1  issued  an  order  in  addition  to  mine,  and  I'm  not  sure  I  ought  to 

2  be  enforcing  Judge  Buchanan ' s  order . 

3  J'.1y  order,  if  he  says  that  he  will  produce  or  allQi.1  the 

4  installation  of  the  pen  register,  and  in  addition  I  have  issued 

5  a  search  warrant  for  the  codes  that  you  want,  which  I  did  this 

6  morning,  that ' s  been  entered,  i t  seems  that  this  issue  is  over 

7  as  far  as  I ' m  concerned  except  I  need  to  see  that  he  allows  the 

8  pen  register  and  complies  with  the  subpoena . 

9  MR .  TRUMP :  Correct . 

10 

THE  COURT:  If  he  doesn ' t  comply  -- if  he  doesn't 

11  comply  with  the  subpoena,  then  that  has  -- I  have  to  address 

12  that. 

13 

14 

MR .  TRUMP :  Right . 

THE  COURT:  But  right  now  there's  nothing  for  me  to 

15  address  here  unless  he  is  not  telling  me  correctly  about  the  pen 

16  register . 

17  MR.  TRUMP:  Well ,  we  can  -- Your  Honor,  if VIe  can  talk 

18  to  Mr .  Levison  for  five  minutes,  we  can  ask  him  whether  he  will 

19  honor  the  warrant  that  you  just  issued . 

20 

21 

MR.  LEVISON:  Before  we  do  that ,  can  I  - -

THE  COURT :  Well,  what  can  I  do  about  it  if  he  doesn't, 

22  if he  t ells  you  he's  not  going  to?  You've  got  the  right  to  go 

23  out  and  search  and  get  it . 

24  MR .  TRUMP:  We l l,  we  can ' t  get  the  information  without 

25  his  assistance .  He ' s  the  only  who  knows  and  has  possession  of 

1'racy  L.  We"tfall  QCR-USDC/EDVA 

tJNDER  SEAL 

10 

1  it .  We  can ' t  take  it  from  him  involuntarily . 

2  MR .  LEVISON :  If  I  may,  sir,  my  other 

THE  COURT :  Wait  just  a  second . 

4  You're  trying  to  get  me  ahead .  You're  trying  to  get  me 

5  to  deal  with  a  contempt  before  there ' s  any  contempt ,  and  I  have 

6  a  problem  with  that. 

7  MR .  TRUMP:  I'm  trying  to  avoid  contempt  altogether, 

8  Your  Honor . 

THE  COURT:  I  know  you  are .  And  I'd  love  for  you-all 

10  to  get  togethe.r  and  do  that.  I  don I  t  want  to  deal  with  it 

11  either.  But  I  don't  think  we  can  sit  around  and  agree  that 

12  there's  going  to  be  a  default  and  I  will  address  it  before  it 

13  occurs. 

14  MR .  TRUMP:  I'm  just  trying  to  figure  out  whether 

15  there ' s  going  to  be  a  default .  We'll  take  care  of  that,  Judge . 

16 

THE  COURT :  You  can .  I  think  the  way  "'e' ve  got  to  do 

17  this  - - and  I'll  listen  to  you .  I'm  cutting  you  off,  I  know, 

18  but  I'll  listen  to  you  in  a  minute. 

19  The  way  we  have  to  do  this,  the  hearing  that ' s  before 

20  me  this  morning  on  this  issue  of  the  pen  register,  that's  been 

21  resolved,  or  so  he's  told  me .  I  don't  know  whether  you  want  to 

22  continue  this  one  week  and  see  if  he  complies  with  that,  which  I 

23  guess  would  be  prudent  to  do,  or  a  few  days  for  him  to  comply 

24  with  the  pen  register .  Then  we  Hill  wait  and  see  \'Jhat  happens 

25  with  the  SUbpoena . 

Tracy  L.                          

UNDER  SEAL 

11 

1  Because  as  far  as  my  pen  register  order  is  concerned, 

2  he  says  he ' s  going  to  comply  with  it .  So  that  issue's  over  and 

3  done  wi th .  The  next  issue  will  be  ...  'hether  or  not  he  complies 

4  with  the  subpoena .  And  I  don ' t  know  and  I  don ' t  want  to 

5  p r e S Q ~ e ,   and  I  don't  want  him  to  represent  to  me  what  he  intends 

6  to  do  when  he  can  very  well  go  home  and  decide  he ' s  going  to  do 

7  something  different. 

8  When  that  warrant  is  served,  we ' ll  know  what  he's  going 

9  to  do .  I  think  we ' ve  got  - - I  don I  t  see  another  way  to  do  it . 

10  HR.  TRUMP :  That's  fine,  Your  Honor.  We  will  serve  the 

11  \iarrant  on  him  as  soon  as  we  conclude  this  hearing,  and  we'll 

12  find  out  whether  he  will  provide  the  keys  or  not . 

13  THE  COURT :  Okay .  NOW,  did  you  want  to  say  anything 

14  else? 

15 

MR .  LEVISON:  Well,  I  mean,  I've  always  maintained  that 

16  all  the  government  needs  to  do  is  contact  me  and  set  up  an 

17  appointment  to  install  that  pen  register .  So  I  don't  knm·]  why 

18  there  has  never  been  any  confusion  about  my  willingness  to 

19  install  it .  I ' ve  only  ever  objected  to  the  providing  of  those 

20  keys  which  secure  any  sensitive  information  going  back  and 

21 

22 

forth . 

But  my  motion,  and  I ' m  not  sure  if  it ' s  relevant  or  not 

23  because  it  deals  more  with  the  issue  of  the  subpoena  demanding 

24  the  keys  and  for  what  will  be  the  forthcoming  search  warrant, 

25  would  be  a  continuance  so  that  I  can  retain  counsel  to  address 

Tracy  L.  Westfall  OCR-USOC/EDVA 

UNDER  SEAL 

1  that  particular  issue . 

2  THE  COURT :  Well,  I  mean,  there's  nothing  before  me 

3  with  that .  I ' ve  issued  the  subpoena.  Whatever  happens  with 

4  that,  that ' s  -- you're  trying  to  get  me  to  do  what  Mr.  Trump 

5  wanted  to  do  and  to  arrange  this  beforehand . 

MR .  LEVISON :  Well,  I  don ' t  know  if  I  have  to  appear 

12 

7  before  that  grand  jury  right  now  and  give  the  keys  over  or  face 

8  arrest.  I ' m  not  a  lawyer  so  I  don ' t  understand  the  procedure . 

9  THE  COURT :  I  don ' t  know  either.  You  need  to  have  __ 

10  it  would  be  \.,rise  to  have  a  lawyer . 

11  MR .  LEVISON ,  Okay . 

12 

THE  COURT :  I  don ' t  know  what's  going  to  happen .  I 

13  don ' t  know .  They  haven't  served  the  warrant  yet .  I  have  no 

14  idea.  Don't  know  what's  going  to  happen  with  it.  You'll  just 

15  have  to  figure  that  out ,  and  it  be  wise  to  have  a  lawyer  to  do 

16  it,  I  would  think . 

17 

MR .  LEVISON :  I  guess  while  I ' m  here  in  regards  to  the 

18  pen  register,  would  it  be  possible  to  request  some  sort  of 

19  external  audit  to  ensure  that  your  orders  are  followed  to  the 

20  letter  in  terms  of  the  information  collected  and  preserved? 

21 

THE  COURT :  No .  The  law  provides  for  those  things,  and 

22  any  other  additional  or  extra  monitoring  you  might  want  or  think 

23  is  appropriate  will  be  denied,  if  that's  what  you ' re  requesting . 

24 

MR .  LEVISON :  Okay .  I  mean,  it  requests  that  the 

25  government  return  to  the  Court  records  __ 

Tracy  L.  W e ~ t f a l l   OCR-USDC/EOVA 

UNDER  SEAL 

13 

THE  COURT :  You  need  to  tal k  to  a  lav'yer  about  what  the 

2  law  r equi res  for  the  issuance  of  a  pen  register. 

3  MR .  LEVISON :  They  can  handle  that  separately .  That's 

4  fine. 

5  THE  COURT :  The  law  sets  out  what  is  done  in  that 

6  regard.  Your  lawyer  can  fill  you  in  if  you  want  to  know. 

7  MR .  LEVISON :  I've  ah{ays  been  willing  to  accept  the 

8  device.  I  just  have  some  concern  about  ensuring  that  it's  used 

9  properly . 

10 

THE  COURT :  Shoul d  we  continue  this  to  some  specific 

11  date  to  see  that  he  complies  with  the  pen  register? 

12 

MR .  TRUMP :  We  can,  Your  Honor .  It's  a  moot  issue 

13  without  the  encryption  keys. 

14 

15 

16 

THE  COURT :  Well,  that  is  a  practical  matter  --

MR .  TRUMP :  That's  a  practical  --

THE  COURT :  -- but  I  don't  think  it  is  a  moot  issue.  I 

17  mean,  you- all  have  got  the  right  to  go  in  and  put  on  that  pen 

18  register.  He  says  that  he  will  do  it .  That's  all  that  I've 

19  ordered . 

20 

Now,  the  other  business  about  ordering  that,  Judge 

21  Buchanan  made  an  order  that  he's  going  to  have  to  supply  what 

22  you  say  is  the  encryption  codes  to  make  the  information  useful. 

23  I  don't  know.  I  didn't  enter  that  order .  I  have  trouble  making 

24  that  connection . 

25  If  you're  going  to  -- I  don't  know  whether  you  want  to 

Trtlcy  L.  Hest.fall  OCR- USDC/EOVP, 

ONDER  SEAL 

14 

1  do  something  in  front  o f  Judge  Buchanan  or  not. 

2  MR.  LEVISON:  You  see,  Judge ,  though  that  I've  always 

3  been  willing .  They  just  didn't  feel  the  need  to  set  up  an 

4  appointment . 

THE  COURT :  What  do  you  want  me  to  do  with  this  case? 

6  You  want  me  to  continue  it?  You  want  me  to  say  it's moot  right 

7  now  and  just  end  it? 

8  MR .  TRUMP :  No .  I  think  we  can  continue  it.  I  don't 

9  know  Mr .  Levison's  schedule.  It  can  be  done  within  hours  of  his 

10  return  to  Dallas . 

11  THE  COURT :  Of  course  he  can .  You  want  to  continue  iL 

12  till  a  week  from  Friday? 

13 

14 

MR .  TRUMP :  Or  a  week  from  today. 

MR .  LEVISON :  I ' m  not  available  within  hours  of  my 

15  return,  but  I  can  meet  with  you  on  Thursday . 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

THE  COURT :  Let ' s  continue  it  a  week  from  Friday . 

HR .  TRUMP :  A  week  from  E'riday . 

THE  COURT :  What  date ' s  that?  The 

THE  CLERK,  26th . 

THE  COURT:  The  26th? 

MR .  LEVISON :  Acceptable  to  me . 

22  THE  COURT :  We ' ll  continue  it  to  the  26th,  and  that's 

23  for  determining  whether  or  not  that  pen  register  has  been 

24  instal led  as  you  request . 

25  We  can  make  it  10  o'clock . 

TrDCy  L.            OCR-USDC/EDVA 

2  time . 

15 

MR .  LEVISON :  I ' ll  reme mber  10 : 00  instead  of  10 : 30  this 

THE  COURT :  All  right .  Thank  you . 

All  right .  Thank  you- all .  We ' 11  adjourn  till  tomorro\o; 

5  morning  at  9 : 30 . 

6  *  *  * 

7  (Proceedings  concluded  at  1 1: 02  a . m. ) 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

Tracy  L.  Westfall  OCR-USDC/EDVA 

16 

1  CERTIFICATION 

3  I  certify,  this  17th  day  of  September  2013,  that  the 

4  foregoing  is  a  correct  transcript  from  the  record  of  proceedings 

5  in  the  above-entitled  matter  to  the  best  of  my  ability . 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

IS· 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

151 

Tracy  West fa 

Tracy  L.  W e ~ t f a l l   OCR- USOC/£DVA 

EXHIBIT  14 

IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  DISTRICT  COURT 

FOR  THE 

EASTERN  DISTRICT  OF  VIRGINIAjr,=;  __  1r  __   ___ 

Alexandria  Division                

IN  THE  MATTER  OF  THE 

APPLICATION  OF  THE  UNITED 

STATES  AUTHORIZING  THE  USE  OF 

A  PEN  REGISTER/ TRAP  AND  TRACE 

DEVICE  ON  AN  ELECTRONIC  t1.Z\IL 

ACCOUNT 

Ir  ' Ii (fJ13  IJl) 

Cr iminal  No.  1 : 13EC297 

ORDER 

This  matter  comes  before  the  Court  on  the  Government's  Motion 

that Ladar Levinson,  the owner and operator of Lavabit,  LLC  show cause 

as  to  why  Lavabit,  LLC  has  failed  to  comply  with  the  Court's  Order 

of  June  28,  201.3  and  why  this  Court  should  not  hold  Mr .  Levinson  and 

Lavabi t,  LLC  in contempt,  a n d  Ladar  Levi nson's oral Motion To  Unseal. 

For  the  reasons  stated  from  the  bench,  it  is  hereby 

ORDERED  that  Ladar  Levinson's  Motion  To  Uns eal  is  DENIED  and 

this  matter  is  continued  to  Friday,  J u l y  26,  2013  at  10:00  a . m.  for 

further  proceedings. 

Alexandria,  Virginia 

July  Ie  '  2013 

   

CLAUDE  M.  HILTON 

UNITED  STATES  DISTRICT  JUDGE 

EXHIBIT  15 

IN  THE UNITED  STATES  DISTRlCT  COURT FOR THE 

EASTERN  DISTRICT OF vtRGINIA 

Alexandria Division 

IN TilE MATTER  OF THE 

APPLICATION  OF THE  UNITED 

STATES  AUTHORlZING THE USE 

OF A PEN  REGISTER/TRAP 

AND  TRACE  DEVICE ON  AN 

ELECTRONIC  MAIL ACCOUNT 

IN  THE MATTER OF THE  SEARCH 

AND  SEIZURE OF INFORMATION 

1'1-1A'1'IS 

.vJ"""'U AT 

PREMISES  CONTROLLED  BY 

LAVABlT  LLC 

In re  Grand Jury 

FILED  UNDER SEAL 

No.  1:13EC297 

No.  1: 13SW522 

No.  13-1 

MOTION  TO  QUASH SUBPOENA AND  SEARCH WARRANT AND 

MEMORANDUM  OF LAW  IN SUPPORT OF MOTION 

Lavabit  LLC  CT.avabit'')  and  Mr.  Lader Le\tinson  ("Mr.  Levinson")  move 

this  Court to quash  the  grand jury subpoena and  search  and  seizure warrant 

served  on  them  by the Federal Bureau  of Investigation and  the  Office  of the 

United  States Attorney (collectively ('Government") . 

BACKGROUND 

Lavabit is  an  encrypted  email service  provider.  As  such,  Lavabit's 

business model focuses on  providing  private and  secure  email accounts to  its 

customers.  ,Lavabit uses various encryption  methods, including secured socket 

layers  f'SSL"),  to protect its users' privacy.  Lavabit maintains an  encryption 

key,  which may be used by authorized users decrypt data and communications 

from  its server {"Master Key").  The Government has commanded Lavabit,  by a 

subpoenal and a  search and seizure warrant,  to  produce the encryption keys 

and SSL keys used by Javabit.com in  order to access and decrypt 

communications and data stored in one specific email address 

II"Lav"bi"t  Subpoena and Warrant") " 

ARGUMENT 

If the Government gains access to Lavabit's  Master Key,  it will have 

unlimited access to not  1("E:m,IlI  Account"),  but. 

all of the communications and data stored in each of Lavabit's 400,000 email 

accounts.  None of these other users' email accounts are at jssue in this 

matter.  However,  production of the  Master  Key  will  compromise the security of 

these users.  While  Lavabit is willing  to cooperate with the Government 

regarding the Email Account,  Lavabit has a  duty to  ?1aintain  the  security for 

the rest ofits customers' accounts.  The Lavabit Subpoena and Warrant aIe 

not narrowly t.ailored  to  seek only data and communications relating to the 

Email Account in question.  As  a  result,  the Lavabit Subpoena and Warrant are 

unreasonable under the  Fourth Amendment  .. 

a.  The  Lavabit Subpoena and Warrant Essentially Amounts to  a 

General Warrant. 

I The grand jury subpoena not only  commanded Mr.  Levinson  to  appear bdore  this Court on 

July 16,  2013,  but a lso  to bring Lavabit's encryption  keys.  Mr.  Levinson's subpoena to  appear 

befon:  thc grand jury was withdrawn,  but the government continues to seek thc encryption 

keys.  Lavabit is only seeking to quash the  Court's command that Mr.  Levinson provide the 

encryption keys. 

Though  the Lavabit Subpoena and Warrant superficially appears to be 

narrowly tailored, in reality, it operates as a  general warrant by giving the 

Government access to every Lavabit user's communications and data. 

It is not what the Lavabit Subpoena and Warrant defines as tbe  boundaries for 

the search,  but the method of providing access for the search which amounts to 

a  general warrant. 

It is axiomatic that the Fourth Amendment prohibits general warrants. 

Andresen v.  Maryland,  427 U.S.  463,  480 (1976).  Indeed "it is familiar history 

that indiscriminate searches and seizures conducted under the authority of 

'general warrants· were  the  immediate evils that motivated the framing and 

adoption of the  Fourth Amendment."  Payton v.  New  York,  445 U.S.  573,  583 

(1980)  (footnote omitted) .  To avoid  general warrants, the Fourth Amendment 

requires that "the place  to  be  searched" and "the persons or things  to  be seize::d" 

be described  with particularity.  United States v.  Moore,  775 F.  Supp.  2d 882. 

898  (E.D.  Va.  2011)  (quoting United  States  v.  Grubbs,  547  U.S.  90, 97 (2006)). 

The  Fourth Amendment's particularity requirement is meant to "prevent[J 

the seizure of one thing under a  warrant describing another." Andresen, 427 

U.S.  at 480.  This is  precisely the concern with  the  Lavabit Subpoena and 

Warrant and,  in  this circumstance,  the particularity requirement will  not 

protect Lavabit.  By turning over the  Master Key,  the Government will  have the 

ability to  search each and every "place,'" "person [and]  thing" on Lavabit's 

network. 

The  Lavabit Subpoena and Warrant allows the .Government·to do a 

."general,  exploratory rummaging"  through any Lavabit user account.  See  id. 

(quoting Coolidge  v.  New Hampshire,  403 U.S.  443,  467 (1971))  (describing the 

issue with  general warrants "is  not that of intrusion per se, but of a  general, 

exploratory rummaging in a  person's  belongings").  Though  the Lavabit 

Subpoena and Warrant is facially  limited  to  the Email·Address,  the 

Government would  be able to  seize communications,  data and information  from 

any account once  it  is  given the  Master  Key . 

. There is nothing other than  the "discretion of the officer executing the 

warranf

to  prevent an invasion of other Lavabit user's accounts and private 

emails.Seeid. at  492  (quoting Sta"ford v. Texas,  379 U.S.  476, 485 (1965)) 

(explaining  that  the purpose of the  particularity requirement of the Fourth 

Amendment is to  ensure, "With  regards to  what is taken  that,  <Inothing  is left to 

the discretion of the  officer  executing the  warrant.")  (internal citati.on  omittedj. 

Lavabit has no a3surance  that any :Jearches conducted utilizing the  Master  Key 

wUl  be limited solely  to  the  Email Account.  See Groh v.  Ramirez,  540 u.s.  551, 

561-62  (2004)  (citing Camara v.  Municipal  Court of City  and County of San 

Francisco,  387 U.S.  523, 532 (1967))  (noting that a  particular warrant is to 

provide  individuals with assurance "of the lawful  authority of the executing 

officer,  his need to  search,  and  the  limits of his  power to search)  (emphasis 

added).  Lavabit has a  duty to  its customers to  protect  their accounts from  the 

possibility of unlawful intrusions  by third parties, jncluding government 

entities. 

As  the  Lavabit Subpoena and Warrant arc currently framed  they are 

invalid as they operate as a  general  warrant,  allowing the  Gover nment to 

search individual users not SUbjection to  this  suit, without limit. 

b.  The Lavabit Subpoena and Warrant Seeks Information that Is 

Not Material to the Investigat ion. 

Because of the  breadth of Warrant and Subpoena, the Government will  be 

given  access to data and communications that are wholly unrelated to the suit. 

The Government, by commanding Lavabit's encryption keys,  is  acquiring 

access to 400,000 user's private accounts in order to  gain information about 

one individual.  18 U.S.C;  § 2703(d)  states that a  court order may be issued for 

information ".relevant and material to  an ongoing criminal  investigation." 

However, the Government will  be given unlimited access,  through the  Master 

Key,  to  several hundred thousand user's information, all  of who  are not 

"material" to  the investigation.  Id. 

Additionally,  the Government  has no probable  cause to gain access  to the 

other users accounts.  "The Fourth Amendment  ... requires that a  warrant be no 

broader  than the probable  cause on  which it is based."  Moore, 775 F.  Supp.  2d 

at 897 (quoting  United States u.  Hurwitz,  459  F.3d 463, 473  (4th Cir.  2006)). 

Probable cause here  is  based on the activities of the individual1inked  to the 

Email Address.  Other Lavabit users would  be  severely impacted by the 

Government's access to  the Master Key and have not been accused of 

wrongdoing or criminal activity in relation to  this suit.  Their privacy interests 

should not suffer because of the alleged  misdeeds of another Lavabit user. 

c;  Compliance with Lavabit Subpoena and Warrant Would Cause 

an Undue Bu rden. 

As  a  non-party and uhwilling participant to  this suit,  Lavabit has already 

incurred  legal  fees and other costs in order to  comply with the Court's orders. 

Further compliance, by turning over the Master Key  and granting the 

Government access to its entire network,  would be unduly burdensome.  See 

18  U.S.C.  §  2703{d)  (stating that "the service provider may [move  to)  quash or 

modify  [an]  order, if the information or records  requested are unusually 

voluminous in nature or compliance with such order otherwise would cause an 

undue burden on such provider.")  (emphasis added) . 

The recent case of In  re  IJ.pplication  ojthe U.S.  for an Order Pursuant to  18 

U.S.C.  2703(d) ('Twiite>")  addresses similar issues.  830 F.  Supp. 2d  114 (E.D. 

Va.  2011) .  In  that case,  the Petitioners failed  to allege '"a  personal injury 

cognizable  by the Fourth Amendment."  Jd.  at 138.  However,  Lavabit's 

circumstances are distinguishable.  The Government, in pursuit of information 

date and communications· related to  the Email Address,  has caused and wiU 

continue to cause injury to Lavabit.  Not only has Lavabit expended a  great 

deal  of time and money in attempting to  cooperate with the Government  thus 

far,  but,  Lavabit will pay the ultimate price-the loss of its             trUst and 

business-should the Court require that the  Master Key  be  turned over. 

Lavabit's business, which is founded. on the preservation of electronic privacy, 

could  be destroyed if it is  required  to  produce its  Master Key. 

.  LavabiUs also a  fundamentally different entity than Twitter,  the business 

at issue in Twitter.  The Twitter Terms of Service specifically allowed user 

information  to be disseminated.  [d.  at 139.  Indeed,  the very purpose of Twitter 

is for  users to publically       their musings and beliefs  on the Internet.  In 

contrast,  Lavabit is dedicated  to  keeping its user's information private and 

secure.  Additionally,  the order in Twitterdid  not seek "content information" 

from 1witter users,  as is being sought here.  Id.  The              request for 

Lavabit's Master Key  gives it access  to data and communications from 400,000 

email SeC1.1re  accounts,  which is much more  sensitive information  that at issue 

in  the 1\uitter. 

The Government is  attempting.  in complete disregard of the Fourth 

Amendment,  to  penetrate a  system that was founded  for  the sale purpose of 

. privacy.  See  Katz v.  United States,  389 U.S.  347, 360 (1967) (stating that 'the 

touchstone of Fourth Amendment analysis is whether a  person has a 

constitutionally protected reasonable expectation  of privacy"}  (internal citations 

omitted).  For  Lavabit. to grant the Government unlimited access to every one of 

its user's accounts would be to disavow its duty  to its users and the principals 

upon which it was founded.  Lavabit's service will  be rendered devoid of 

economic value if the Government is  granted  access  to its secure network.  The 

Government does not have any proper basis to request that Lavabit  blindly 

produce its Master Key  and subject all orits users to invasion of privacy. 

'Mor eover,  the Master Key itself is an encrypt ion  developed  and owned  by 

Lavabit.  As  such it is valuable proprietary information and Lavabit has a 

reasonable expectation in protecting it.  Because Lavabit has a  reasonable 

expectation "Of  privacy for its Master Key,  the Lavabit Subpoena and Warrant 

violate  the' Fourth Amendment.  See Twitter, 830 F.  Supp. 2d at 141  (citing 

·United States u.  Calandra,  414 U.S.  338,  346 (1974))  (noting "The grand jury 

is ...  without power to invade a  legitimate privacy interest protected  by the 

Fourth Amendment" and that "a grand jury's subpoena ... will  be disallowed if it 

is far too sweeping in its  terms to be ... reasonable under the Fourth 

Amendment."). 

CONCLUSION 

[?or  the foregoing reasons,  Lavabit and Mr.  Levinson respectfully  move 

tIlis Court to quash the search and seizure warrant and grand jury subpoena. 

Further, Lavabit and  Mr.  Levinson request that this Court direct  that Lavabit 

does not have to produce its  Master Key.  Alternatively,  Lavabit and Mr. 

Levinson request  that they be given an opportunity to  revoke the. current 

encryption key and reissue a  new encryption key at the Government's expense. 

Lastly,  Lavabit and Mr.  Levinson request that,  if  they is required  to  produce the 

Master Key,  that they be reimbursed for its costs which were directly incurred 

in  producing the Master Key,  pursuant to  18  U.S.C. §  2706. 

LAVABITLLC 

By Counse l 

(703)  229-0335 Telephone 

(703)  537-0780- Facsimile 

jbinnall@bblawonline.com 

C,n""sel for I-avabit I-I-C 

" . 

, . 

Certificate  of Service 

I certify fuat on  thisZ.9day of July, 2013, this Motion to Quash 

Subpoena and Search Warrant and Memorandum of Law in Support was hand 

delivered to  the person  at the addresses listed below: 

Eastern  District of Virginia 

2100 Jamieson Avenue 

10 

EXHIBIT  16 

IN THE  UNlTED  STATES  DISTRICT COURT 

FOR THE EASTERN  DISTRICT OF VIRGINIA 

Alexandria Division 

IN  THE MAITER OF THE 

APPLICATION  OF THE  UNITED 

STATES AUTHORIZING THE USE 

OF A PEN REGISTER/TRAP 

AND  TRACE  DEVICE ON  AN 

ELECTRONIC  MAIL ACCOUNT 

IN  THE MAITER OF THE SEARCH 

AND  SEIZURE  OF INFORMATION 

ASSOCIATED  WITH 

rs 

"U'LLJ>J-'  AT 

PREMISES  CONTROLLED  BY 

LAVABIT  LLC 

In  re  Grand  Jury 

FILED UNDER SEAL 

No.  !:13EC297 

No.  1: 13SWS22 

No.  13-1 

MOTION FOR  UNSEALING OF SEALED  COURT  RECORDS AND  REMOVAL 

OF NON-DISCLOSURE ORDER AND  MEMORANDUM  OF LAW IN SUPPORT 

OF MOTION 

Lavabit,  LLC  ("Lava bit")  and  Mr.  Ladar Levinson  (IiMr. Levinson") 

(collectively "Movants")  move this  Court to  unsea1  the c.ourt records concerning 

the United  States government's attempt to obtain certain             keys  and 

lift the  non-disclosure order  issued  to  Mr.  Levinson.  Specifically,  Movants 

request the unsealing of all orders and  documents filed  in  this matter  before 

the Court's issuance  of the July  16,  2013 Sealing Order  ("Sealing  Order');  (2) 

all orders and  documents filed  in this  matter after  the  issuance of the  Sealing 

Order;  (3)  all  grand jury subpoenas and  search and  seizure warrants issued 

before  or  after issuance of the Seali ng  Order; and  (4)  all  documents  filed  in 

connection ·with such orders or requests fOT  such orders (collectively,  the 

"sealed documents").  The Sealing Order is attached as Exhibit A.  Movants 

request that all of the sealed documents be unsealed and made public as 

quickly as pOSSible, with  only those redactions necessary to  secure information 

that the Court deems, after review,  to be properly withheld. 

BACKGROUND 

Lavabit was formed in 2004 as a  secure and encrypted email service 

provider.  To  ensure security, Lavabit employs multiple encryption schemes 

using complex access keys.  Today,  it provides email service to roughly 400,000 

users worldwide.  Lavabit's corporate philosophy is user anonymity and 

privacy.  Lavabit employs  secure socket layers  ("SSL")  to ensure the privacy of 

Lavabit's subscribers through encryption.  Lavabit possesses a  master 

encryption  key  to  facilitate  the private communications of its users. 

On July 16,  2013,  this Court entered an Order pursuant to  18 U.S.C. 

2705(b),  directing Movants to disclose  all information  necessary to decrypt 

conununications scnt to or from  and data stored or  otherv.rise associated with 

the  Lavabit e-mail ac'colmt  including SSL keys  (the 

"Lavabit Orde:r») .  The Lavabit Order is attached as Exhibit  B.  The Lavabit 

Order precludes the  Movants from notifying any person of the search and 

seizure warrant,  or the Court's Order in issuance thereof,  except that Lavabit 

was permitted to djsclose the search warrant to  an attorney for legal advice. 

ARGUMENT 

· In criminal trials  there is  a  common law presumption of access to judicial 

records; ·like the sealed documents in  the present case.  Despite the 

government's legitimate interests, it cannot nieet its burden and overcome  this 

presumption  because it has not explored reasonable alternatives. 

Furthermore, the government's notice preclusion order constitutes a  content-

based r estriction on free  speech by prohibiting public discussion of an .entire 

topic based on its subject matter. 

I.  THE FIRST AMENDMENT AND  NON-DISCLOSURE ORDERS 

The Stored Communications Act ("SeA")  authorizes notice preclusion to 

any person of a  §  2705(b)  order's existence,  but only if the Court has reason  to 

believe that notification will  result in  (1)  endangering the life or physical safety 

of an individual; (2)  flight from prosecution; (3)  destruction or tampering with 

evidence;  (4)  intimidating of potential witnesses; or (5)  otherwise seriously 

jeopardizing an investigation or unduly delaying a  trial.  §  2705(b)(1)-(5). 

'Despite this statutory authority,  the §  2705(b)  gag order infringes upon 

freedom of speech under the  First Amendment,  and should he subjected to 

constitutional case law. 

The  most searching form of review,  "strict scrutiny",  is implicated when 

thel'e is.a content-based restriction on free speech.  R.A. V.  u.  City of St. Paul, 

Mirin.,  505 U.S.  377,  403 {1992}.  Such a  r estriction must be  necessary to  sel've 

a  compelling state interest and narrowly  drawn to achieve that end..  [d.  The 

Lavabit Order's nonMdisc1osure provision is a  content-based restriction  that is 

not narrowly tailored to achieve a  compelling state interest. 

a;  The  Lavabit Order Regulates Mr.  Levinson' s  Free  Speech 

The notice  pr eclusion  order at issue here  limits Mr.  Levinson's  speech in 

that he is not allowed to disclose the existence of the §  2705(b)  order, or the 

.underlying investigation to any other person including any other Lavabit 

subscriber.  This naked prohibition against disclosure can fairly be 

charaCterized as a  regulation ofpurc speech.  Bartni.cld u:  Vopper,  532 U.S. 

514,  526 (2001) .  A regulation  that limits the time,  place, or manner of speech 

is permissible if it serves a  significant governmental interest and provides 

ample  alternative channels  for  communication.  See Cox tJ.  New Hampshire, 

312 U.S,  569, 578 (1 941)  (explaining  that requiring a  permit for  parades was 

aimed at policing the streets rather than restraining peaceful picketing). 

However,  a  valid  time, place;  and manner restriction cannot  be  based on  the 

content or subject matter of the speech.  Conso!.  Edison Co.  of New York u.  Pub. 

Sem  Comm'n of New York,  447 U.S.  530,  536 (1980). 

The gag order in the  present cas e  is content-based because it  precludes 

speech on an entire  topic)  namely the search and seizure warrant and the 

underlying criminal investigation.  See id.  at 537  ("The  First Amendment's 

hostility to  content-based regulation extends ... to  prohibition of public 

discussion of an entire  topic").  While  the nondisclosure provision may be 

viewpoint neutral on its face,  it nevertheless functions as a  content-based 

restriction  because it closes off an "entire topiC" from  public discourse. 

rt  is true that the government has a  compelling interest in maintaining 

the integrity of its  criminal investigation  However,  Mr. 

Levinson  has been  unjustly restrained from  contacting Lavabit subscribers who 

could be subjected to  government surveillance if Mr.  Levinson were forced  to 

comply the Lavabit Order.  Lavubit 's  value is embodied)n its complex 

encryption keys,  which provide its subscribers with privacy and security.  Mr. 

Levinson  has been unwilling to  tUrn over  these valuable keys  because they 

grant access to  his entire network.  In order  to protect Lavabit,  which caters to 

thous<ll1;ds  of international clients,  Mr.  Levinson needs some ability to voice  his 

concerns, garner support for  his cause, and take precautionary steps to  ensure 

that Lavabit remains a  truly secure network. 

b.  The  Lavabit Order Constitutes A Prior Restraint On Speech 

Besides restricting content, the §  2705(b) non-disclosure order forces  a 

prior restraint on  speech.  It is well settled  t hat an ordinance, which makes the 

enjoyment of Constitutional guarantees  contingent upon the uncontrolled  will 

of an official,  is a  prior restrain t  of those freedoms.  Shuttlesworth IJ. 

Binningham,  394 U.S.  147,  150-151  (1969);  Staub  u.  City of Baxley,  355 U.S. 

313,  322· (1958).  By definition,  a  prior restraint is an immediate and 

irreversible  sanction because it "freezes" speech.  Nebraska Press Assn v. 

Stuart,  427 U.S.  539,  559 (1976).  In the p resent case, the Lavabit Order, 

enjoins  Mr.  Levinson from discussing  these proceedings with any other person. 

The effect is an immediate freeze  on speech. 

The Supreme Court of the United States has interpreted the First 

Amendment as providing greater  protection from prior restraints .  Alexander 1/. 

United  States,  509 U.S.  544 (1993).  Prior restraints carry a  heavy burden for 

justification, with  a  presumption against constitutional validity.  Capital Cities 

Media,  Inc.  v.  Toole,  463  U;S.  1303,  1305 (1983);  Carroll  v.  Princess Anne, 393 

U.S.  175,  181  (1968);· Bantam Books,  Inc.  v.  SUllivan.,  372 U.S.  58, 70 (1963). 

Here, the government and the Court believe that notification of the search 

warrant's existence will  seriously jeopardize the investigation,  by giving targets 

an opportunity to flee  or continue flight from prosecution, will  destroy or 

tamper with evidence,  change  patterns of behavior,  or notify confederates .  See 

Lavabit Order.  However,  the government's interest in the integrity of its 

investigation does not automatical ly supersede First Amendment rights.  See 

Landmark Commun.ications,  Inc.  v.  Virginia,  435  U.S.  829,  841  (1978)  (holding 

the confidentiality of judicia! review insufficient to justify encroachment on  the 

freedom  of speech). 

In the prescnt case, the government has a  legitimate interest in tracking 

the aCCOUl1t  However, if Lavabit were forced to 

surrender its master encryption key,  the government would have access not 

only to  this account,  but ?lIsa  every Lavabit account .  Without the ability to 

disclose  government access to users' encrypted data, public debate about the 

scope and justification for this secret investigatory tool will  be  stifled. 

Moreover,  innocent Lavabit subscribers will not know that Lavabit's security 

devices  have been compromised.  Therefore the §  2705{b)  non-disclosure order 

should be lifted  to  provide Mr.  Levinson the ability to ensure the value and 

integrity of Lavabit for  his other subscribers. 

If.  TRELAW SUPPORTS THE RIGHT OF  PUBLIC ACCESS TO THE 

SEALED DOCUMENTS 

Despite any statutory authority,  the Lavabit Order and all related 

documents were  filed  under seaL  The sealing of judicial records imposes a 

limit.on  the public's right of access, which  derives from  two sources,  the First 

Amendment and the common law.  Va.        of State Police v.  Wash.  Post,  386 

F.3d 567, 575  (4th Cir.  2004);  See Richmond Newspapers,  Inc.  v.  Virginia,  448 

U.S.  555,  580 (press and public have  a  First Amendment right of attend a 

criminal  trial);                    Co.  v.  Superior Court,  478 U.S.  1,2 (1986)  (right 

of access to preliminary hearing and transcript). 

a.  The Common Law Right Of Access Attaches To  The Lavabit Order 

For a  right of access to  a  document to exist under either the First 

Amendment or the common law,  the document must be a  "judicial record." 

Baltimore Sun Co.  v.  Goetz,  886 F.2d  60, 63-64 (4th  Cir.  (989) .  Although the 

Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals has never formally  defmed "judicial record", it 

held that §  2703(d)  orders  and subsequent orders issued by the court are 

judicial records because they are judicially created.  In re U.S. [or,an Order 

Pursuant to  18 U.S.c.  Section 2703(d),  707 F.3d 283, 290 (4th Cir.  2013) 

("Twitter').  The §  2705(b)  order in the present case was issued pursuant to § 

2703(d)  and can properly be  defined  as ajudicial record.  Although the Fourth 

Circuit has held  there is  no First Amendment right to access §  2703(d)  orders, 

it held that the common law presumption of access attaches to such 

documents.  Twitter,  707 F.3d at 291. 

-The underlying investigation in  Twitter,  involved  a  §  2703(d)  order,  which 

directed Twitter to  provide personal information, account information,  records, 

financial  data,  direct messages to and from email addresses, and Internet 

.Protocol addr.esses for  ~ i g h t   of its subscribers.  In re: §  2703(d) Order,  787 F. 

Supp .. 2d 430,  435 IE.D.  Va.  2011).  Citing the importance of investigatory 

secrecy ~ n d   integrity,  the court in  that case denied  the  petitioners Motion to 

Unseal, finding no First Amendment or common law right to access.  [d.  at 443. 

Un1ike Twitter,  whose users publish comments on a  public forum, 

subscribers use Lavabit for  its encrypted features , which ensure security and 

privacy.  In  Twitter there was no threat that any user would be  subject to 

surveillance other than the eight users of interest to  the government.  However, 

a  primary concern in this case is that the Lavabit Order provides  the 

government with  access to every Lavabit account. 

Although  the secrecy of seA investigations is a  compelling government 

interest,  the hundreds of thousands of Lavabit subscribers that would be 

compromised  by the Lavabit Order are not the subjects of any justified 

government investigation.  Therefore access to these private accounts should 

not be treated as a  simple corollary to  an order requesting information on onc 

criminal subject.  The public should have access to these orders because t..lJ.eir 

effect constitutes a  seriously concerning expansion of grand jury subpoena 

power. 

To overcome the common law presumption of access,· a  court must find 

that there  is a  "significant countervailing interest" in support of sealing that 

               public's interest in openness.  Twitter.  707 F.3d at 293.  Under 

the common law.  the decision to seal or gra.'1t access to warrant paper.s is 

within the  discretion  of the judicial officer who issued  the warrant.  Media 

.General Operations,  Inc.  u.  Buchanan,  417 F.3d 424,  429 (4th Cir.  2005).  If a 

judicial officer determines  that full  public access is not appropriate,  she must 

consider alternatives to  sealing,  which may include granting some public 

access or releasing a  redacted version of the documents.  [d. 

In Twitter the court explained  that because the magistrate judge 

individual1y considered the documents, and  redacted and unsealed certain 

documents,  he satisfied  the procedural requirements for  sealing.  Twitter,  707 

F.3d at 294.  However,  in the present case,  there is no evidence that 

alternatives were considered.  that documents were redacted, or that any 

documents were unsealed.  Once the presumption or access attaches, a  court 

cannot seal documents or records indefmitely unle.ss the goverrunent 

demonstrates that some significant interest heavily outweighs the public 

interest in  openness.  Wash.  Post.  386 F.3d at 575.  Despite the government's 

concerns. there are reasonable  alternatives to an absolute seal that must be 

explored in order to ensure the integrity of this investigation. 

b.  There Is No  Statutory Authority To  Seal The §  2705(d) 

Documents 

There are no provisions in the SeA that mention the sealing of orders or 

other documents.  In contrast, the Pen/Trap Statute authorizes electronic 

surveillance and directs  that pen/trap orders be sealed "until otherwise 

ordered  by the  court".  18 U.S.C.  §§ 3121-27.  Similarly,  the Wiretap Act, 

another surveilla nce statute, expressly directs that applications and orders 

granted under its provisions be  sealed.  18 U.S.C.  §  2518(8)(b).  The SCA's 

failure  to provide  for sealing is not a  congressional oversight.  Rather,  Congress 

has specifically provided  for sealing provisions when it desired.  Where 

Congress includes  particular language in one section of a  statute but omits it 

in another, it is generally assumed that Congress acts intentionally.  Keene 

Corp. v.  United States, 508 U.S.  200, 208 (1993).  Therefore,  there is no 

statutory basis for  sealing an application or order under the SeA that would 

overcome the common law right to access. 

c.  Privacy Concerns Demand A Common Law Public Right or Access 

To The Sealed Documents 

The leaking of classified government practices by  Edward Snowden and 

the ensuing mass  surveillance scandal have sparked an intense national and 

international deba te about government surveillance,  privacy rights and other 

traditional freedoms.  It is concerning that suppressing Mr.  Levinson's speech 

and pushing its subpoena power to the limits,  the government's actions may be 

viewed as accomplishing another unfounded secret infringement on personal 

privacy.  A maj or concern is that this could  cause people worldwide  to abandon 

American service providers in favor of foreign  businesses  because the United 

States cannot be trusted  to regard privacy.l  It is in the best interests of the 

Movant's and the government that the documents in this  matter not be 

.  I  Sec Dan Roberts,  NSA  Snooping:  Obama Under Prest>"Ure  as Senator Denounces  'Act of 

Treason',  The Guardi.an, June 10, 2013, http://www.guardian.co.uk/ world/201 3/jun 

110/ 0 bama  -pressured-explain  -nsa-su rveillance. 

10 

shrouded in secrecy ctnd used to further unjustified sU'rveillance 'activities and 

to suppress public debate. 

CONCLUSION 

For the foregoing reasons,  Lavabit respectfully moves this Court to 

unseal  the court records concerning the United States government's attempt to 

obtain certain encryption keys and lift the                 order issued on Mr. 

Levinson.  Alternatively.  Lavabit requests that all of the sealed documents be 

redacted to secure only the information  that the Court deems, after review,  to 

be properly withheld. 

11 

LAVABIT  LLC 

By Counsel 

Certificate of Service 

I certify that on this.Nay of July, 2013, this  Motion For Unsealing Of 

Sealed Court Records And  Removal  Of Non-Disclosure Order And 

Memorandum Of Law In  Support was hand delivered  to the person at the 

addresses listed  below: 

Eastern  District of Virginia 

2100 Jamieson Avenue 

Alexandria.  VA  22314 

12 

EXHIBIT  17 

IN  THE  UNITED STATES  DISTRICT COURT 

EASTERN  DISTRICT OF VlRG.Il'IIA .  ' . 1 

.. , 

ALEXANDRIA  DIVISION  .  " •.• ' 

IN  THE MA ITER OF THE 

APPLlCA TlON OF THE UNITED 

STATES AUTHORIZING THE USE OF 

A PEN  REGlSTERffRAP AND TRACE 

DEVICE ON  AN ELECTRONIC MAIL 

ACCOUNT 

IN  THE MA ITER OF THE SEARCH 

AND SEIZURE OF INFORMATION 

AT PREMISES CONTROLLED BY 

LAVABIT  LLC 

IN  RE GRAND JURY  SUBPOENA 

, . ~ - .. "  ~   .. , 

NO.  1:13  EC  297 

NO.I:I3SW522 

NO.  13· 1 

UNDER SEAL 

- - -.  I·  ! 

'"  '"'  \ 

•  • 

RESPONSE  OF THE UNITED STATES IN OPPOSITION 

TO LAVABIT'S MOTION TO QUASH SUBPOENA A.>ID 

MOTION TO FOR UNSEALING  OF SEALED COURT RECORDS 

INTRODUCTION 

This  Court has  ordered  Lavabit,  LLC  10  provide the  government with  the 

technical  assistance necessary  to  implement and  use  a pen  register  and  trap  and  trace 

device ("pen-trap  device").  A full  month after  that  order,  and  after an  order to  compel 

compliance, a grand jury subpoena,  and  a search  warrant  for  that  technical  assistance, 

Lavabit  has  still  not  complied.  Repeated  efforts  to  seek  that  technical  assistance  from 

Lavabit's owner have  failed.  While  the  government  continues La  work toward a mutually 

acceptable  solution, at  present  there  does  not  appear to  be  a way to  implement this 

Court's order, as  well  as  to comply with the subpoena and search \varram,  without 

requiring Lavabit to disclose an  encryption  key to  the government.  This Court's orders, 

search warrant, and the grand jury subpoena all  compel  that  result, and  they are all 

la .....  tful.  Accordingly,  Lavabit's motion to quash the search warrant and subpoena should 

be denied. 

Lavabit and  its owner have also moved to unseal all  records in  this  matter and  lin 

the  order issued by the  Court preventing them from disclosing a search warrant issued in 

this  case.  Because public discussion of these records would alert the target and 

jeopardize an active criminal  investigation, the government's compelling interest in 

maintaining the secrecy and  integrity of that investigation outweighs a.'1y  public right of 

access to,  or interest in  publicly discussing, those records, and this motion should also  be 

denied. 

TECHNICAL BACKGROUND 

Pen registers and trap  and trace devices 

To investigate Internet comrrllUlications, Congress has pennined law enforcement 

to  employ two  surveillance techniques-the pen register a.'1d  the trap and trace device-

that  pennit law enforcement  to  learn  information about an  individual's communications. 

See  18  U.S.C.  §§  3121 · 27 ( "Pen-Trap Act").  These techniques, collectively known as a 

"pen· trap," permit law enforcement to  learn facts about e ~ m a i l s   and other 

communications as they are sent-but not to  obtain their content.  See,  e.g.,  United States 

v.  Forrester.  512  F.3d  500, 509-13  (9th  ei r.  2008) (uphold ing government's use ofa pen-

trap that "enabled the government to  learn  the  to/ from  addresses of Alba's e-mail 

messages, the  fP  addresses of the  websitcs Ihat Al ba visited and the total  volume of 

infonnation sent to or from  his account"). 

The Pen-Trap Act "unambiguously authorize(sJ  the use of pen registers and  trap 

and  trace  devices on  e-mail accounts."  In  Malter of  Application of US.  For  an  Order 

AUlhorizing  the installation &  Use  of  a Pen  Register &  a Trap  &  Trace  Device  on E-Mail 

Account.  416 F. Supp.  2d  13,  14  (D.D.C. 2006) (Hogan,  j.) ("Hogan Order").  It 

authorizes both the installation of a "device," meaning,  a separate computer attached to 

the  provider's network, and also  a "process," meaning, a software program run  on the 

provider.  Id.  at  16;  18  U.S.C. § 3127. 

Secure  Socket Layer (SSL)  or Transporr  Layer Security  (TLS)  Encryption 

Encrypting communications sent across the  Internet is a way to ensure that only 

the  sender and  receiver ofa communication can read  it.  Among the most common 

methods of encrypting Web and  e-mail  traffic is  Secure Socket Layer (SSL), which is 

also called Transport Layer Security (TLS) encryption.  «The Secure Socket Layer 

('SSL') is one method for providing some security for  Internet communications.  SSL 

provides security by establishing a secure channel  for  communications between a  web 

browser and  the web server; that is,  SSL ensures that the messages passed between the 

client web browser and  the web server are encrypted."  Disney Enlerprises,  Inc.  v.  Rea. 

No.  I :12· CV·687,  201)  WL 1619686 *9 (E.D.  Va.  Apr.  11, 20IJ); see also Siambler v. 

RSA  Sec ..  Inc.,  2003  WL 22749855  *2·3  (D.  Del.  2003) (describing SSL' s technical 

operation). 

As ......  ith most forms  of encryption, SSL relies on  the use of large nwnbers  known 

as "keys."  Keys arc parameters used  to  encrypt  or decrypt data.  Specifically, SSL 

encryption employs public-key cryptography. in which  both the sender and receiver each 

have two  mathematically  linked keys:  a "public" key and  a "private"  key.  "Public"  keys 

are  published, but "private" keys  are  not.  Sending an encrypted message to  someone 

requires knowing his or her  public key; decrypting that  message requires knowing his  or 

her private key. 

When  Internet traffic  is  encrypted  with  SSL, capturing non-content information 

on e-mail communication from  a pen-trap device  is  possible only  after  the  traffic is 

decrypted.  Because Internet communjcarions closely intenningle  content vtith non-

content.  pen-trap devices by necessity scan network traffic but exclude from any  report to 

law enforcement officers all  information  relating  to  the  subject line and body ofLi-}e 

communication.  See  18  U.S.C.  § 3127;  Hogon  Order,  416 F.  Supp.  2d at  17-18.  A pen-

trap device, by definition, cannot expose to  law enforcement officers the  content of any 

communication.  See  id. 

FACTS 

The information at  issue before the court is  relevant to an ongoing criminal 

violations of numerous  federal  'tal:ute". 

A.  Section 2703(d) Order 

The criminal  investigation has revealed  uti lized and continues 

to  utilize an  e-mail ac(:oun(, 

United States obtained an  order pursuant  to  18  U.S.C.  § 2703(d) directing  Lavabit to 

provide, within ten days, additional records and  information 

account.  Lavabit's owner and  operator,  Mr. Ladar Levison, provided very  little of {he 

infannalion sought by the June  10.2013 order. 

S.  Pen-Tr:lp Order 

On June 28, 2013, the  Honorable Theresa C.  Buchanan entered an Order pursuant 

to  18  U.S.C. § 3123 authorizing the  installation and use of pen-trap device on all 

c:Iectronic communications  being sent from  or sent to  the electronic mail  account 

("I'en.·Trao Order").  The Pen-Trap Order authorized the 

government  to  capture all  (i) "non-content" dialing, routing, addressing, and  signaling 

information sent 10  or  Oi) to  record the date and 

time of the initiation and  receipt of such transmissions, to  record  the duration of the 

transmissions, and 10  record  lIser log-in  data on  for  a 

period of sixty days.  Judge  Buchanan  further ordered  Lavabit to  furnish  agents of the 

F'edeml  Bureau of Investigation  ("FBI"), "forthwith, all  information,  facilities. and 

technical  assistance necessary to  accomplish the  installation and use  of the  pen-trap 

device."  Pen-Trap  Order at 2.  The government was also ordered to "take reasonable 

steps to  ensure that the monitoring equipment is  not  used  to  capture any" content-related 

information,  Id.  Pursuant to  18  U.s.C,  § 3123(d). Judge  Buchanan ordered th.tthe Pcn-

Trap Order and accompanying application be sealed.  Id 

Later on  June 28, 2013, two  FBI  Special  Agents served a copy of the  Pen-Trap 

Order on  Mr.  Levison.  Mr.  Levison informed the  FBI Special Agents that emails were 

encrypted as  they  were transmitted to  and  from  the Lavabit  server as  well as  when they 

were stored on  the  Lavabit server.  In  addition, decryption keys  would be  necessary to 

access any e-mails.Mr. Levison did  n01  provide the keys  to  the Agents in  that  meeting. 

In  an email to  Mr. Levison on  July 6,  2013, a FBI  Special  Agent re-affinned the nature of 

the information requested in the pen-trap order.  In a response on  the same day,  Levison 

claimed "we don't record  this  data". 

C.  Compliance Order 

Mr.  Levison did  not comply with  the Pen-Trap Order.  Accordingly. in the 

evening of June 28. 2013, the  government obtained an  Order Compelling Compliance 

Forthwith  from  U.S.  Magistrate Judge Theresa C.  Buchanan ("Compliance Order"). The 

Compliance Order directed  Lavabit to comply with  the  Pen-Trap Order and  to "provide 

the Federal  Bureau of Investigation \\fith  unencrypted data pursuant to me  Order." 

Lavabit was further ordered to  provide "any infonnation  .• facilities, or technical assistance 

are  under the control of Lava bit [that] are needed  to  provide the  FBI with the unencrypted 

data."  Compliance Order at2.  The Compliance Order indicated that  failing to comply 

would subject Lavabit to  any  penalty  in  the power of the court, "inclUding the possibility 

of criminal  contempt of Court."  Id. 

D.  Order to  Show  Cause 

Mr.  Levison did not comply with the Compliance Order.  Qn July 9,  2013, this 

Court ordered  Mr.  Levison to  appear on  July  16,2013, to show cause why Lavabit has 

failed  to  comply  with  the Pen-Trap Order and  Compliance Order. 

The following day, on July  10,2013, the United  States Attorney's Office arranged 

a conference cal!  involving the  United  States Attorney's Office, the  FBI,  Mr.  Levison and 

Mr.  Levison's  attorney at the time, Marcia Hofinann.  During this call, the parties 

discussed implementing the pen-trap device in  light of the encryption in  place on the 

target e-mail  account.  The  FBI explained, and Mr.  Levison appeared to agree,  that  to 

install the pen-trap device and to obtain  the  unencrypted data stream necessary for  the 

device's operation the FBI would require (i) access to Lavabit's server and  (ii) encryption 

keys. 

E.  Grand Jury Subpoena 

On July  11, 2013, the  United  States  Attorney's  Office issued a grand jury 

subpoena for  Mr.  Levison to testify in  front  of the  grand jury on July  16,2013.  The 

subpoena instructed  Mr.  Levison to  bring to the grand jury his encryption  keys and  any 

other  infonnation  necessary to  accompl ish the installation and  use of the  pen-trap device 

pursuant to  the Pen-Trap Order. I  The FBI  anempted to  serve the subpoena on  Mr. 

Levison at his  residence.  After knocking on  his door,  the  FBI  Special Agents witnessed 

Mr.  Levison exit his apartment from  a back door,  get  in  his car, and  drive away.  Later in 

the evening, the FBI  successfully served  Mr.  Levison with the  subpoena. 

I  The grand jury subp<H.!na  was subsequently sealed on  July  16,2013. 

On July  13, 2013,  Mr.  Levison  sent an e-mail  to  Assistant  United  States Attorney 

stating, in pan: 

In light of the  conference callan July 1  O1h  and after subsequently reviewing the 

requirements of the June 28th order 1 now believe it would be  possible to capture 

the required data ourselves and  provide it  to  the  FBI.  Specifically the information 

we'd collect is the login and  subsequent  logout date and  time, the IP  address used 

to  connect to the subject email account and  the following non-content headers (if 

present) from  any future emails sent or received using the  subject account.  The 

headers  I currently plan to collect  are:  To, Ce,  From,  Date, Reply-To, Sender, 

Received,  Return-Path, Apparently-To and  Alternate-Recipient. Note that 

additional  header fields  could  be  captured if provided in  advance of my 

implementation effort. 

$2,000  in compensation would be  required  to  cover the  cost of the development 

time a.'1d  equipment necessary to  implement my solution. The data would then  be 

collected  manually and  provided at  the  conclusion of the 60  day  period required 

by  the Order. I may be able to provide the collected data intermittently during the 

collection period but only as my schedule allows.  If the FBI would like to receive 

the collected information more  frequently  I would require an additional  $1,500  in 

compensation.  The additional  money would be needed to  cover the costs 

associated  with automating the  log collection from  different servers and uploading 

it to  an  an  FBI  server via "scp"  on a daily  basis. The money would also cover the 

cost of adding the process to  our automated monitoring system so that  I would 

notified automatically  if any  problems appeared. 

The e-mail  again confirmed that Lavabit is  capable of providing the  means for  the FBI to 

install the pen-tmp device and obtain the requested information in  an Wlencrypted form. 

A  re!,Ii"d  to Mr.  Levison's e-mail that same day, explaining that the 

proposal was inadequate because, among other things,  it did not provide for real-time 

transmission of results, and  it  was not clear that Mr.  Levison's request for  money 

constituted the "reasonable expenses" authorized by  the statute. 

F.  Search WarrAnt &  2705(b)  NOD-Disclos ure  Or der 

On  July  16, 2013, this Court issued a search warra11t  to  Lavabit for (i) "[aJll 

information  necessary 10  decrypt communications sent to  or from the Lavabit e·mail 

incl uding encryption keys and SSL keys" ill1d  (ji) 

"[al11  information necessary  to decrypt data stored  in  or otherwise associated  with  the 

Lavabit 'CC'OUllt  Pursuant to  18  USC. § 2705(b), the Court 

ordered Lavabit  to not disclose the existence of the search warrant upon determining that 

"there is  reason to believe that notification of the existence of the  ... warrant will 

seriously jeopardize the  investigation, including by  giving target an opportunity to  flee  or 

continue flight  from  prosecution, destroy or tamper with evidence, change patterns of 

behavior,  or noti fy  confederates."  July  16, 2013  Order ("Non-Di sclosure Order") at  \ . 

G.  Rule 49  Sealing Order 

The search  warrant and  accompanying materials were further sealed by  the Court 

on  July  16,2013, pursuant to a  Local  Rule 49(B) ("Rule 49 Order").  In  the Rule 49 

Order,  the  Court  found  that "revealing the material sought to be  sealed would jeopardize 

an ongoing criminal  investigation."  The sealing order was  further justifted by the Coun's 

consideration of «available alternatives that are  less drastic than  sealing, and  finding none 

would suffice to  protect the government's legitimate interest in  concluding the 

investigation; and  having  found  that  this  legitimate  goverrunent  interest outweighs at this 

time any interest in  the  disclosure of the  material."  Rule 49 Order at  I. 

H.  Show Cause Hearing 

At the  Show Cause Hearing on July  16,  2013,  Mr.  Levison made an  oral  motion 

to  unseal  the proceedings and related filings.  The government objected since unsealing 

the proceedings would jeopardize the ongoing criminal  investigation  The 

Court denied  Mr.  Levison's  motion.  Mr.  Levison subsequently  indi cated to the Court 

that  he would permit the  FBI to  place a pen-trap device on  his  server.  The government 

requested  that the  Court  further order Mr.  Levison to  provide his SSL keys since placing 

a           device  on  Lavabil's server  would only provide encrypted  infomlation that 

would  not  yield  the  information required  under the       Trap Order.  The government 

noted that  Lavabit was  also  required  to  provide the SSL keys pursuant to the  search 

warrant and grand jury subpoena.  The Court determined that the government's request 

for the SSL keys was  premature given that Mr.  Levison had offered to place the          

device on his server and  the  Court's order  for a show cause hearing was  only based on 

the  failure to comply with the           Order.  Accordingly, the Court scheduled a 

hearing for  July 26. 2013, to  determine whether Lavabit was  in  compliance with the      

Trap Order after a pen-trap device was  installed. 

I.  Motion to  Unseal and  Lift Non-Disclosure Order 

On July 25, 2013, Mr.  Levison filed two motions-a Motion for  Unsealing of 

Sealed Court Records ("Motion to  Unseal") and a Motion to  Quash Subpoena and Search 

Warrant (<<Motion to Quash").  In the  motions, Mr.  Levison confinns that providing the 

SSL keys 10  the govenunent would  provide the data required under the Pen-Trap Order in 

an unencrypted fonn.  Nevertheless, he  refuses to  provide the SSL keys.  In  order to 

provide the government \\;th sufficient time to  respond, the hearing was rescheduled for 

August  1,2013. 

On a later date, and after discussions with Mr. Levison, the FBI  installed a pen. 

trap device on Lavabit's Internet service provider, which would capture the  same 

infonnalion as  if a pen-trap device  was  installed on Lavabit's server.  Based on the 

government's ongoing investigation, it  is  clear that due  to  Lavabit's encryption services 

the  pen· trap  device is  failing  to capture data related  to all of the e-mails sent to  and from 

the  account  as well  as  other infonnation required under the Pen-Trap Order.  During 

10 

Lavabit's over one month of noncompliance with  this Court's Pen· Trap vr,aer, 

ARGUMENT 

I.  THE SEARCH  WARR"NT AND TIfE GRAND JURY SUBPOENA ARE 

LA WUL AND REQUIRE LA V ABIT  TO PRODUCE THE SSL KEYS 

A.  The  search warrant and grand jury subpoena  are  valid because [hey 

merely re·srare  Lavabil 's pre-existing legal duty,  imposed by the  Pen· Trap 

Order,  to produce injormafion necessary to  accomplish installation a/the 

pen·trap device. 

The  motion of Lavabit and Mr. Levison (collectively "Lavabit") to quash both the 

grand j ury subpoena and  the search warrant should be  denied because the subpoena and 

warrant merel y re· state and  clarify Lavabit's obligation under the  Pen-Trap Act to 

provide that same  information.  In total, four separate legal obligations currently compel 

Lavabit to  produce the SSL keys: 

1.  The Pen-Trap Order pursuant to  the Pen Register and Trap and  Trace 

Device Act (18  U,S,C,  §§  3121-27); 

2.  The Compliance Order compelling compliance forthwjth  with the  Pen· 

Trap Order; 

3,  The July 16, 2013,  grand jury subpoena;  and 

4.  The  July  16,2013, search warrant, issued by this  Court under the 

Electronic Communications Privacy Act ("ECPA"). 

The  Pen·Trap Act authorizes courts to  order providers such as Lavabit to disclose 

"i nfonnation"  that  is "necessary" to accomplish the  implementation or use ofa pen·trap. 

See  18  U,S,C. §§  3 I 23(b)(2); ) 124(0); 3 I 24(b).  Judge  Buchanan,  acting underthat 

authority, speci fically  required  in  the  Pen-Trap Order that:  "IT IS  FURTHER 

II 

ORDERED, pUIOuant  to  18  U.S.C.  § 3123(b)(2), that  Lavabit shall  furnish  agents from 

the  Federal  Bureau of Investigation, fonhwith, all  information,  facilities,  and techPjcal 

assistance necessary to  accomplish t1-Jc  lnstallation and  use of the pen/trap device 

unobtrusively and with minimum interference."  Pen-Trap Order at 2. 

In this case, the SSL keys are "infonnation ...  necessary to  accomplish the 

installation and  use of the  [pen-trap]" because all  other options  for  installing the pen-trap 

have  failed.  In  a typical case, a provider is capable of implementing a pen-trap by  using 

its own software or device, or by  using a technical  solution provided by  the investigating 

agency;  when such a solution is  possible,  a provider need  not disclose irs  key.  E.g ..  In  re 

Application of Ihe  u.s. Jor an Order Alilhorizing the  Use  of a  Pen  Register and Trap  On 

[.'O(X]  1merner Serv.  AccounrlUser Name  [==@xrx.comj, 396 F.  Supp. 2d 45, 49 

(D.  Mass. 2005) (suggesting language in  a pen-trap order "to impose upon the internet 

service providers the  necessity of making sure that they configure their software in  such a 

manner as to  disclose only that which has been authorized").  In this case,  given 

Lavabit's usc ofSSL encryption and  Lavabit's lack ofa software solution to  implement 

the  pen-trap  on. behalf the  government, neither the  government nor Mr.  Levison have 

been able to  identify such a solution. 

Because the search warrant and  grand jury subpoena require nothing that the Pen-

Trap Act does not already require, they are not unreasonably burdensome.  Moreover, a 

court's constitutional  authority to  require a telecommunications provider to assist the 

government in  implementing a pen-trap device is well-established.  See  United Srores  v. 

New  York  Tel.  Co.,  434 U.S.  159,  168-69 (1977)  (in  a pre-Pen-Trap Act case,  holding that 

district court had  the  authority to order a  phone company to assist  in  the  installation of a 

12 

pen· tmp,  and "no claim  is  made  that  it  was  in  any way  inconsistent with  the  Fourth 

Arnendment."). 

8.  Lavabit's motion 10  quash  the search warrant muse be denied because 

there is  no statutory authority for such motions,  and (he  search warranI is 

lawful  in  any event. 

1.  Lavabit  lacks authority  to  move to  suppress a search 

wa..TTant. 

Lavabit lacks authority  to ask  this  Court to "quash" a search wru:rant  before  it  is 

executed.  The search warrant was  issued  under Tit!e  II  of ECPA,  18  U.S.C. §§  2701-

2712.  ECPA allows providers such as  Lavabit to move to quash court orders,  but does 

not create an equivalent  procedure to move to quash search warrants.  18  U.S.C. 

§ 2703(d).  The lack  ofa corresponding motion to  quash  or modify a search warrant 

means that there is no  statutory authority for such motions.  See  18  U.S.C.  § 2708 ("[tJhe 

remedies and sanction:; described in  this  chapter are the only judicial remedies and 

sanctions for  nonconstitutional  violations of this chapter."); cf In  re  ApplicaTion of the 

U.S.for an  Order Pursuant 10  18 u.s.c.  § 2703(d), 830 F.  Supp. 2d  114,  128-29 (E.D. 

Va.  2011) (holding that  the  lack of a specific  provision in  ECPA permitting users to  move 

to  quash  coun orders requires "the Court [to]  infer that Congress deliberately declined  to 

penni! (suchl  challenges."). 

2.  The search  warrant complies  with  the Fourth Amendment 

and  is  not  general . 

The  Founh Amendment requires  that a search warrant "particularly describe[e] 

the  place to  be  searched,  and the persons or things to  be  seized."  U.S.  Const.  Am.  [Y. 

This "particularity requirement is  fulfilled  when  the warrant identifies the  items to  be 

seized by  their  relat ion  to designated crimes and  when  the description of the  items leaves 

nothing to  the  discretion  of the officer executing the warrant."  United Scates  v.  Williams, 

592  F.3d  511,  519 (4th Cir. 2010). 

The July  16,2013, search warrant's specification easily meets this standard, and 

therefore  is  not  impermissibly general.  It calls  for  only: 

a.  All information necessary to decrypt communications 

                 

Ii  encryption keys and 

b.  All  infonnation necessary to  decrypt data  stored  in  or 

ott,erwi,se              the Lavabit account 

That specification  leaves nothing to discretion; it calls for  encryption and SSL keys and 

nothing else. 

Acknowledging this speCificity,  Lavabit nonetheless argues that the  warrant 

"operates as  a  general  warrant by giving the Government access to every  Lavabit user's 

communications and data."  Mot.  to Quash at 3.  To the contrary, the warrant does  not 

grant the  government the  legal authority  to  access any Lavabit user's communications or 

data.  After Lavabit  produces its  keys  to  the government, Federal  statutes, such as the 

Wiretap Act  and the Pen· Trap Act,  will continue to  limit sharply the government's 

authority to collect any data on any  Lavabit user-except for the one Lavabit user whose 

account is currently the  subject of the Pen.Trap Order.  See  18  U.S.C.  § 251 1(1) 

(punishing as  a  telony  the  unauthorized  interception of communications); § 3121 

(criminalizing the use of pen-trap devices without a court order).  It cannot be  that a 

search warrant is "general" merely  because it  gives the  government a tool  that, if  abused 

COnlrary (0  law. could  constitute a general  search.  Compelling the owner of an apartment 

building to  unlock  the  building's front  door so  that agents can searen  one apartment is  not 

14 

a "general search" of the entire apartment  building-even if the  building owner imagines 

that  undisciplined agents  will  illegally kick down the doors  to  apartments not described in 

the  warrant. 

C.  Lavabft's motion /0 quash  the subpoena must be denied because 

compliance would not be  unreasonable or oppressive 

A grand jury subpoena "may order the witness  to  produce any books, papers, 

documents, data, or other objects the  subpoena designates," but the court "may quash or 

modify the subpoena  if compliance would  be unreasonable or oppressive."  Fed.  R.  enrn. 

P.  17(c)(I) &  (2); see  In  re Grand Jury. John Doe  No. G.J.2005-2. 478  F.3d 581 , 585 

(4th Cir.  2007) (recognizing courts may quash subpoenas that are "abusive or 

harasSing")? 

Lavabit argues the  subpoena should be quashed  because it  "grant[s]  the 

Government  unlimited access to  every one of its  user's accounts."  MOL  to  Quash at 7. 

As explained above, the subpoena does no such  thing:  It merely  reaffinns Lavabit 's 

existing obligation to  provide infonnation necessary to  implement this Court's Pen·Trap 

Order on  a single Lavabit customer's e·mail account.  The Pen·Trap Order further 

restricts  the  government's aCC'ess  by  preventing the government  from  collecting the 

content of that  Lavabit customer's e·mail  communications. 

Lavabit also argues that it  will  lose customers'  trust and  business ifit they Jearn 

that  Lavabit  provided the  SSL keys to  the government.  But Lavabit  finds  itself in the 

position of having to  prod.uce  those  keys  only because, more than  a month after the Pen· 

Trap Order, Lavablt has  failed  to  assist the government to  implement the pen·trap device. 

1  t.llvabit cites  18  U.S.C.  § 2703(d) as authority  for  its motion  to  quash,  but  that  section  by  its tl:rms onl y 

pennits motions  to quash court orders issued  under that same section. 

15 

Any resulting loss of customer "trust" is  not an "unreasonable" burden  if Lavabit's 

customers trusted  that Lavabil  would refuse  to  comply with  lawful  court orders.  All 

providers are statutorily required to  assist  the  government in  the  implementation of pen-

traps, see  18  U.S.C.  § 3124(a), (b), and  requiring providers to  comply with that  statute is 

neither "unreasonable" nor "oppressive."  In  any event,  Lavabit's  privacy policy tells its 

customers that "Lavabit will  not release any information related to  an  individual user 

unless legally  compelled to  do  so."  See  hnp:!llavabit.comiprivacy  policy.html (emphasis 

added). 

Finally,  once court·ordered surveillance  is complete,  Lavabit will  be free  to 

changc  its SSL keys.  Vendors sell  new SSL certificates for  approximately $100.  See, 

e.g. , GoDaddy LLC, SSL Certificates, https://www.godaddy.comlssl/ssl-certificates.aspx. 

Moreover, Lavabit  is  eniitled to compensation "for such reasonable expenses incurred in 

providing" assistance in  implementing a pen·trap device.  18  U.S.C.  § 3124(c). 

11.  THE NON-DISCLOSURE ORDER  IS CONSISTENT WITH THE f1RST 

AMENDMENT BECAUSE IT  IS NARROWLY TAILORED TO SERVE 

WHAT ALL PARTIES AGREE  IS A COMPELLING  GOVERNMENT 

INTEREST 

Lavabit has asked the  Court to unseal all  of the records sealed by this Court's 

Order to  Seal,  and to  lift the Court's Order dated July  16,2013, directing Lavabit not to 

disclose the existence of the  search warrant the Court signed that day ("Non-Disclosure 

Order").  Moti on  for  Unsealing of Sealed Court Records and Removal of Non-

Disclosure Order ("Mot.  to  Unseal")  at  1·2.  Lavabit, however, has not  identified (and 

cannot) any compelling reason sufficient to  overcome what even Lavabit concedes is  the 

government 's compelling interest in  maintaining the  secrecy and  integrity of its  active 

Moreover, the  restrictions arc  narrowly tailored to  restrict 

16 

Lavabit from  discussing only a  limited set of information disclosed  to  them as part of this 

investigation.  Because there is  no  reason  to jeopardize the criminal investigation, this 

motion must be denied. 

A.  The  Non-Disclosure  Order survives even strict scrutiny review  by 

imposing necessary bur limited secrecy obligations on Lavabi( 

The  United  States does not  concede that strict scrutiny must  be  applied in 

reviewing the  Non-Disclosure Order.  There is  no  need  to  decide this  issue,  however, 

because the Non-Disclosure Order is  narrowly tailored to advance a compelling 

government interest, and  therefore easily satisfies strict  scn!tiny. 

Tne Government has  a compelling interest in  protecting the integrity of on-going 

criminal  investigations.  Virginia  Dep"  of State  Police  v.  Wash.  Post, 386 FJd 567,  579 

(4th Cir.  2004) ("We note  initially our complete agreement with  the general principle that 

a compelling governmental  interest exists in protecting the integrity of an  ongoing law 

enforcement investigation"); Branzbl.lrg  v.  Hayes,  408  U.S.  665,700 (1972) 

("requirements  ...  that a  State's interest must be  'compelling'  .. .  are also  met  here.  As  we 

have indicated,  the investigation of crime by the grand jury implements a fundamental 

governmental role of securing the safety of the person and property of the  citizen  . ..  "). 

Indeed, it  is "obvious and unarguable that no  government interest  is  more compelling 

than  the  secunty of the  Nation."  Haig  v.  Agee, 453  U.S.  280, 307  (1981)  (internal 

quotation  marks omitted); see  also  Dep·f a/the Navy v.  Egan, 484  U.S.  518, 527 (1988) 

("This Court has recognized  the Government's 'compelling interest'  in  withholding 

national            infonnation from  unauthorized persons in  the course of executive 

business").  Likewise,  here,  the United  States clearly has  a compelling interest in 

ensuring that  the target oflaVlf'uI  surveillance is  not aware that he is  being monitored. 

17 

United States v.  Aguilar,  515  U.S.  593,606 (1995)  (holding that a  statute prohibiting 

disclosure ofa wiretap was permissible under the  First  Amendment, in part  because 

"[ w]e think the  Government's interest is  quite sufficient to justify the construction of the 

statute as written, without any  artificial  narrowing because of First Amendment 

concerns").  As the Non-Disclosure Order makes clear, publicizing "the existence of the 

[search]  warrant will seriously jeopardize the  investigation,  including by giving targets an 

opportunity to  flee  or continue flight  from  prosecution, destroy or tamper Mth evidence, 

change patterns of behavior, or notify confederates." 

Lavabit acknowledges that '<the  government has a  compelling interest in 

maintalning the integrity of its  criminal  investigation  Mot.  to  Unseal 

at  ~   id.  at 6 ("the government has a legitimate interest in tracking" 

account);  id.  at  8  ("the secrecy of [Stored Communications Act]  investigations is  a 

compelling government interest") .  In spite of this  recognition, Lavabit states it  intends to 

disclose the search warrant and  order should the Court grant the Motion to Unseal.  ld.  at 

5 ("Mr . Levinson  needs some ability to  voice his concerns  [and]  garner support for his 

cause");  id. at  6.  Disclosure of electronic surveillance process before the electronic 

surveillance has finished,  would be  unprecedented  and  defeat the  very purpose of the 

surveillance.  Such disclosure would ensure  along with the  public, 

would  learn of the  monitoring of a -mail account and take action to frustrate  the 

legitimate monitoring of that account. 

The Non-Disclosure Order is  narrowly tailored to serve the goverrunent's 

compelling interest of protecting the  integrity of its  investigation.  The scope of 

information that  Lavabit may not  disclose could  hardly be more narrowly drawn: "the 

18 

existence of the attached search  warrant"  and  the Non-Disclosure Order itself. 

Restrictions on a party's disclosure of information obtained through participation  in 

confidential  proceedings stand on a different andfirmer constitutional footing from 

restrictions on the disclosure of informat ion obtained by independent means.  Seattle 

Times  Co. v.  Rhinehart,  467 U.S.  20, 33  (1984) (order prohibiting disclosure of 

information  learned through judicial proceeding "is not the kind  of classic prior restraint 

that  requires exacting First Amendment scrutiny"); Butterworth  v.  Smith,  494 U.S.  624, 

632  (1990) (distinguishing between a witness' "right to  divulge information of which he 

was in  possession before he testified  before the grand jury" with "information which  he 

may  have obtained as a  result of his participation in  the proceedings  of the grand jury"); 

see also  Hoffman-Pugh  "v.  Keenan, 338 FJd 1136,  1140 (10th Cir. 2003) (finding 

prohibition on  disclosing information learned through grand jury process, as  opposed to 

information person already knew, does  not violate First Amendment).  In  Rhinehart, the 

Court found  that "control over [disclosure of]  the discovered information does not  raise 

the same specter of government censorship that such control  might suggest in other 

situations."  467 U.S. at  32. 

Further, the Non-Disclosure  Order is  temporary.  The nondisclosure obligation 

will  last only so  long as  necessary to  protect the government's ongoing investigation. 

B.  The  Order neither forecloses discussion of an  "enfire  fopic" nor 

consfifutes an  uncons(ilUfional prior restraint on speech 

The limitation imposed here does not  close off from discussion an "entire topic," 

as  articulated  in  Consolidared Edison.  Mot.  to  Unseal  at 4.  At  issue in that  case was  the 

constitutionality of a  state commission's order prohibiting a regulated utility  from 

including  inserts in  monthly bills that  discussed any controversial  issue of public policy, 

19 

such as  nuclear power.  Consolidared Edison  Co.  of  New  York v.  Pub.  Servo  Comm In  oj 

Nftw  York,  447 U.S.  530, 532 (1980).  The Non-Disclosure Order, by contrast,  precludes 

a single individual, Mr.  Levison,  [rom discussing a narrow set of information he did  not 

know before this proceeding commenced, in  order to  protect the  integrity of an  ongoing 

criminal  investigation.  Cf.  Doe  v.  Mukasey,  549  F.3d 861,  876  (2d  Cir.  2009) ("although 

the  nondisclosure requirement  is  triggered by the  content of a category of information, 

that  category, consisting of the fac'  of receipt of [a  National  Security Letter] and some 

related  details,  is far  more limited than  the  broad categories of information that have  been 

at  issue with respect to  typical content-based restrictions. ").  Mr.  Levison may  still 

discuss everything  he could discuss before the Non-Disclosure Order was issued. 

Lavabit's argument that  the Non-Disclosure Order,  and  by  extension all  § 2705(b) 

orders, are unconstitutional  prior restraints is  likewise unavailing.  Mot. To Unseal  at  5·6. 

As argued  above,  the  Non-Disclosure Order is  narrowly tailored  to  serve compelling 

government interests, and satisfies strict  scrutiny.  See  supra,  Part ILA.  Regardless,  the 

Non-Disclosure Order does  not  fit  within the two  general categories of prior restraint that 

can  run atoul of the  First  Amendment:  licensing regimes in  which an  individual's right to 

speak is  conditioned  upon  prior approval from  the  government, see City of  Lakewood v. 

Plain Dealer Publishing Ca., 486  U.S.  750,  757  (1988), and  injunctions restraining 

certain speech and  related activities, such as publishing defamatory or scandalous 

articles. showing obscene movies, and distributing leaflets,  see Alexander v.  Unired 

Stares,  509  U.S.  544,  550 (1993) .  A prior restraint denies  a person the ability to express 

viewpoints or ideas they could have  possessed without any  government involvement. 

Section 2705(b) orders, by  contrast, restrict a recipient's ability to  disclose limited 

20 

infonnation that the  recipient only learned from  the  government's need to  effectuate a 

legitimate, j Lldicially sanctioned  fonn  of monitoring.        a narrow limitation on 

infonnation acquired  only by virtue of an official  investigation does not  raise the same 

concems  as  other injunctions on speech.  Cf Rhinehart,  467 U.S. at  32,  Doe v.  Mukasey, 

549 F.3d at  877 ( "[t]he                 requirement" imposed by the national  security 

tetter statute "is not a typical  prior restraint or a typical content-based restriction 

warranting the most rigorous first Amendment scrutiny"). 

III.  NO  VALID BASIS EXISTS TO DNSEAL DOCUMENTS THAT, IF MADE 

PUBLIC PRE-MATURELY, WOULD JEOPARDIZE AN  ON-GOTNG 

CRIMINAL INVESTIGA nON 

A.  Any common law righl of  access  is outweighed by the need to protecl the 

integriry of  the  investigalian. 

Lavabit  asserts that the  cornmon  law right of access necessitates reversing this 

Court's decision to  seal  the  search warrant and supporting documents.  Mot. to Unseal at 

7-10.  The presumption of public access  to judicial  records, however,  is  "qualified/' BaIt. 

Sun  Co.  Y.  GoelZ,  886 F.2d 60, 65  (4th CiT.  1989), and  rebuttable upon  a showing that the 

"public's right of access is  outweighed by competing interests," In  re Application a/rhe 

U.S/or an  Order Pursuant ta  18 U.S.C.  Section  2703(d), 707  F.3d 283, 290 (4th Cir. 

2013) ("Twitter").  In  addition to considering substantive interests, a judge must also 

consider procedural  alternatives to sealing judicial  records.  TWitter,  707 F.3d at 294. 

"Adherence to this  procedure serves to  ensure that the decision to seal materials will  not 

be  made  lightly and  that il will be subject to  meaningful  appellate review."  Va.  Dep 'l  0/ 

Slate  Police  v.  Wash.  POS!,  386  F.3d  567, 576 (4th Cir.  2004).  This standard  is  met easily 

here. 

21 

"[TJhe common Jaw  does not  afford as  much substantive protection to  the 

interests of the press and the public  as does the First Amendment."  Twiuer, 707 FJd at 

290 (internal  quotation marks omitted).  With  respect to  the substantive equities at stake, 

the United States' interest in  maintaining the secrecy of a criminal  investigation to 

prevent the target of the surveillance from  being alerted and altering behavior to  thwart 

the surveillance dearly outweighs any  public interest in  learning about specific acts of 

surveillance.  let.  at 294 (rejecting common  law  right  of access because, inter alia,  the 

sealed documents "set  forth  sensitive non-public facts,  including the identity of targets 

and  witnesses in an  ongoing criminal investigation").  "Because secrecy is  necessary for 

the  proper functioning of the  crimina!  investigation" prior to indictment, "openness will 

frustrate  the  government's operations."  ld.  at 292.  Lavabit concedes that ensuring "the 

secrecy of[Stored Communications Act]  investigations," like  this, "is a compelling 

governmenf interest."  Mot.  to  Unseal  at 8 (emphasis added).  Lavabit does not,  however, 

identify any  compelling interests to the contrary.  Far from  presenting "a seriously 

concerning expansion of grand jury subpoena power," as Lavabit's contents,  id.,  a judge 

issued the Pen- Trap Order, which did  not authorize monitoring of any Lavabit e-mail 

account other 

In addition, the  Coun satisfied the procedural prong.  It '''considered the available 

alternatives that are less drastic than sealing, and  [found]  none would suffice to protect 

the  government's legitimate interest in  concluding the  investigation."  Rule  49 Order. 

The Fourth Circuit's decision  in  Twitter is instructive.  That case arose  from  the 

Wikileaks investigation of Army pre,  Bradley Manning.  Specifically, the  government 

obtained an order pursuant to  18  U.S.C.  § 2703(d) directing Twitter to disclose electronic 

22 

communications a'1d  account and  usage  information pertaining to  three subscribers. 

When apprised  of this,  the  subscribers asserted that a conunon law right of access 

required  unsealing records related  to  the  § 2703(d) order.  The Fourth Circuit rejected  this 

claim, fmding that the public's interest  in  the  Wikileaks investigation and  the 

government's electronic surveillance of internet activities did not  oum'eigh "the 

Government's interests  in  maintaining the secrecy  of its investigation, preventing 

potential  suspects from  being tipped  off,  or altering behavior to  thwart the  Govenunent's 

ongoing investigation."  707  F.3d  at  293.  "The mere fact that a case is high profi.ie  in 

nature," the Fourth Circuit observed, "does not necessarily justify public access."  ld  at 

294.  Though Twirler  involved a  § 2703(d) order, rather than a  § 2705(b) order, the Court 

indicated this is a distinction without a difference.  Id.  at 294 (acknowledging that the 

concerns about  unsealing records "accord" with  § 2705(b».  Given the similarities 

between Twilter and the  instant case-most notably the  compelling need  to  protect 

otherwise confidential  infonnation  from  public disclosure and the  national  anention to 

the  matter-there is  no compelling rationale currently before the Court necessitating 

finding  that a common law right of access exists here. 

B.  Courts  have  inherent authority to  seal ECPA  process 

Lavabit asserts that  this  Court must unseal  the Non-Disclosure Order because 18 

U.S.c.  § 2705(b) does not explicitly reference the sealing                   orders issued 

pursuant to that  section.  Mot.  to  Unseal at     I O.  As an  initial  marter, the Court has 

inherent authority to  seal documents before it.  In  re  Knight Pub.  Co.,  743  F.2d  23 1,235 

(4th Cir.  1984)  ("[t]he trial  court has supervisory power over its own records and may,  in 

its  discretion, seal documents  if the public's right of access is outweighed by competing 

23 

interests"); see  also  Media  General  Operations,  fnc.  v.  Buchanan,  417  F3d.  424,  430 (4th 

Cir.  2005);  United States  v.  U.S.  Dist.  Court.,  407  U.S.  297, 321  (1972)  ("a warrant 

application involves  no public or adversary proceedings:  it  is an  ex parte request before a 

magistrate or judge.").  In  addition, the  Court here exercised its  authority to seal  pursuant 

to Local  Rule 49(B), the validity of which Lavabit docs not contest. 

Even if the  Court did  not  have this authority, Lavabit's reading of § 2705(b) must 

be rejected,  because it would gut the  essential  function of non· disclosure orders and 

thereby disregard Congress'  clear intent  in  passing § 2705.  The Section allows courts to 

delay notification pursuant to  § 2705(a) or issue a non-ciisciosure order pursuant to 

§ 2705(b)  upon  finding that disclosure would  risk  enumerated  harms, namely danger to a 

person's  life  or safety,  flight from  prosecution, destruction of evidence, intimidation of 

witnesses, or seriously jeopardizing an  investigation.  18  U.S.C.  §§  270S(a)(2)(A)-(E), 

(b)(l)-(5) .  It would make no sense for Congress to purposefully authorize couns to  limit 

disclosure of sensitive  information while simultaneously intending to  allow the  same 

infonnatien to  be  publicly accessible in  an  unsealed court document. 

Finally, the implications Lavabit attempts to  draw from the mandatory sealing 

requirements of 18  U.S.C.  §§  2SI8(8)(b) and 3123(a)(3)(B) are mistaken.  While Layabit 

characterizes those statutes as  granting courts the  authority to seal  Wiretap Act and  pe.n-

trap orders, courts already had  that authority.  Those statutes have another effect:  they 

removed discretion  from  courts by requiring that courts seal  Wiretap Act orders and  pen-

trap  orders.  See  18  U.S.C.  § 2S18(8)(b) ("Applications made and orders granted under 

this           shall be sealed by  the judge") (emphasis added);  id.  § 3123(a)(3)(B) ("The 

record  maintained  under subparagraph (A) shall be provided ex parte and under seal 10 

24 

the court") (emphasis added).  Congress'  decision to  leave that discretion  ill place in 

other situations does not mean that Congress believed that only Wiretap Act and pen-trap 

orders  may be  sealed. 

C  Supposed privacy concerns do  not compel a COmmon  law right of access 

TO  [he  sealed documenrs. 

Lavabit's brief ends with an  argument that  privacy interests requi re a common 

law  right of access.  Mot.  to Unseal  at  10· 11 .  Lavabit, however, offers no  legal  basis for 

this Court to  adopt such a novel argument, nor do  the putative policy considerations 

Lavabit references out\Veigh  the  government's compelling interest in  preserving the 

secrecy of its ongoing criminal investigation.  I n d ~ e d ,   the most compelling interest 

currently before the Court is ensuring that the  Court's orders requiring that  Mr.  Levison 

and  Lavabit comply with legitimate monitoring be implemented  forthwith  and without 

additional delay, evasion, or resistance by Mr.  Levison and  Lavabit. 

CONCLUSION 

For the foregoing  reasons, Lavabit's motions should be  denied.  Furthermore, the 

Court should enforce the Pen-Trap Order, Compliance Order, search warrant, and  grand 

jury subpoena by imposing sanctions until Lavabit complies. 

By: 

Respectfully Submitted, 

NEIL H.  MACBRIDE 

Assistant Uruted  States Attorney 

United States Attorney's Office 

2100 Jamieson Ave. 

~ ~ ~ V A  

26 

CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE 

i hereby  certify  that  on July 31, 2013, I e-mailed  a copy of the foregoing 

document  to  Lavabit's  Counsel  of Record: 

Jesse  R.  BinnaJl 

Bronley  &  Binnoli, PLLC 

10387  Main          Suite 201 

Fairfax,  V A 22030 

Assistant  United  States Attorney 

United  States Attorney's  Office 

2100 Jamieson  Ave. 

           

27 

EXHIBIT  18 

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UNITED  STATES  DISTRICT  COURT 

EASTERN  DISTRICT  OF  VIRGINIA 

ALEXANDRIA  DIVISION 

IN  THE  MATTER  OF  THE 

APPLICATION  OF  THE  UNITED 

STATES  AUTHORIZING  THE  USE 

OF  A  PEN  REGISTER/TRAP  AND 

TRACE  DEVICE  ON  AN 

ELECTRONIC  MAIL  ACCOUNT 

IN  THE  MATTER  OF  THE  SEARCH 

AND  SEIZURE  OF  INFORMATION 

PREMISES  CONTROLLED  BY 

LAVABIT,  LLC 

IN  RE  GRAND  JURY  SUBPOENA 

NO .  1 , 13  EC  297 

NO .  1 : 13  SW  522 

NO .  13- 1 

UNDER  SEAL 

Alexandria,  Virginia 

August  1,  2013 

10 : 00  a.m. 

TRANSCRIPT  OF  HEARING 

BEFORE  THE  HONORABLE  CLAUDE  M.  HILTON 

UNITED  STATES  DISTRICT  JUDGE 

APPEARANCES , 

For  the  United  States : 

For  the  Respondent : 

James  Trump,  Esq. 

tHchael  Ben' Ary,  Esq . 

Josh  Goldfoot,  Esq . 

Jesse  R.  Binnall,  Esq . 

Court  Reporter :  Tracy  L.  Westfall,  RPR,  CMRS,  CCR 

25  Proceedings  reported  by  machine  shorthand,  transcript  produced 

by  computer- aided  transcription . 

Tracy  L.  Westfall  OCR-US!)C/EDV':, 

UNDER  SEAL 

1  PRO  C  E  E  DIN  G  S 

2  THE  CLERK :  In  re :  Case  Nos .  1 : 13  EC  297,  1:13  SW  522, 

3  and  Grand  Jury  No .  13- l. 

4  MR.  TRUMP :  Good  morning .  Jim  Trump  on  behalf  of  the 

5  United  States . 

THE  COURT :  Good  morning. 

MR .  BINNALL :  Good  morning ,  Your  Honor.  Jesse  Binnall 

8  on  behalf  of  Lavabit  and  Mr .  Levison . 

10 

THE  COURT :  All  right . 

MR .  BINNALL :  May  it  please  the  Court .  We're  before 

11  the  Court  today  on  two  separate  motions,  a  motion  to  quash  the 

12  requirement  of  Lavabit  to  produce  its  encryption  keys  and  the 

13  motion  to  unseal  and  lift  the  nondisclosure  requirements  of 

14  Mr .  Levison. 

15  Your  Honor,  the  motion  to  quash  in  this  arises  because 

16  the  privacy  of  users  is  at  -- of  Lavabit's  users  are  at  stake. 

17  We're  not  simply  speaking  of  t he  target  of  this  investigation. 

18  We're  talking  about  over  400 , 000  individuals  and  entities  that 

19  are  users  of  Lavabit  who  use  this  service  because  they  believe 

20  their  communications  are  secure . 

21  By  handing  over  the  keys,  the  encryption  keys  in  this 

22  case,  they  necessarily  become  less  secure.  In  this  case  it  is 

23  true  that  the  face  of  the  warrant  itself  does  limit  the 

24  documents  or  -- and  communications  to  be  viewed  and  the  specific 

25  metadata  to  be  viewed  to  the  target  of  the  case, 

Tracy  L.  Westfall  OCR-USOC/EOVA 

UNDER  SEAL 

1  Hm-lever,  there  is  a  lack  of  any  sort  of  check  or 

2  balance  in  order  to  ensure  that  the  - - that  the  encrypted  data 

3  of  other  Lavabit  users  remain  secure .  The  encryption  in  this 

4  case  doesn't  protect  only  content .  It  protects  login  data  and 

5  the  other  - - some  of  the  other  metadata  involved  in  this  case . 

6  We  believe  that  this  is  not  the  least  restrictive  means 

7  in  order  to  provide  the  government  the  data  that  they  are 

8  looking  for .  Specifically--

9  THE  COURT:  You  have  t'NO  different  encryption  codes, 

10  one  for  the  10gins  and  the  messages  that  are  transmitted.  You 

11  have  another  code  that  encrypts  the  content  of  the  messages , 

12  right? 

13 

14 

MR.  BINNALL :  Your  Honor,  I  believe  that  that  is  true. 

From  my  understanding  of  the  way  that  this  works  is 

15  that  there  is  one  SSL  key .  That  SSL  key  is  what  is  issue  in 

16  this  case,  and  that  SSL  key  specifically  protects  the 

17  communication,  the  over  - - the  breadth  of  the  communication 

18  itself  from  the  user's  actual  computer  to  the  server  to  make 

19  sure  that  the  user  is  communicating  with  exactly  who  the  user 

20  intends  to  be  communicating  with,  the  server . 

21  And  that's  one  of  the  things  that  SSL  does .  It  ensures 

22  that  you 're  talking  to  the  right  person  via  e-mail  and  there's 

23  not  a  so- called  man  in  the  middle  who's  there  to  take  that 

24  message  away . 

25  THE  COURT :  Does  that  key  also  contain  the  code  of  the 

Tracy  L.  Westfall                

UNDER  SEAL 

1  message  and  interpret  the  message  as  well? 

MR .  BINNALL :  My  understanding  is  that  it  does,  Your 

3  Honor,  but  because  that ' s  not  my  technical  expertise,  I'm  not 

4  going  to  represent  to  the  Court  anything  on  that  one  way  or 

5  another .  But  my  understanding  is  there  is  one  general  key  here 

6  that  is  at  issue . 

7  THE  COURT :          why  would  you  set  up  such?  I  mean,  a 

8  telephone,  you've  got  telephone  numbers  and  __ 

10 

MR .  BINNALL :  Corre ct . 

THE  COURT :  those  can  be  traced  very  easily  without 

11  any  look  at  the  content  of  the  message  that's  there .  You-all 

12  could  have  set  up  something  the  same  way . 

13 

MR.  BINNALL :  We  could  have,  Your  Honor .  Actually,  if 

14  you ' re  to  --

15 

THE  COURT :  So  if  anybody's  -- you 're  blaming  the 

16  government  for  something  that's  overbroad,  but  it  seems  to  me 

17  that  your  client  is  the  one  that  set  up  the  system  that 's 

18  designed  not  to  protect  that  information,  because  you  know  that 

19  there  needs  to  be  access  to  calls  that  go  back  and  forth  to  one 

20  person  or  another .  And  to  say  you  can 't  do  that  just  because 

21  you've  set  up  a  system  that  everybody  has  to  - - has  to  be 

22  unencrypted,  if  there's  such  a  word,  that  doesn't  seem  to  me  to 

23  be  a  very  persuasive  argument . 

24 

MR .  BINNALL : 

I  understand  the  Court's  point,  and  this 

25  is  the  way  that  I  understand  why  it's  done  that  way . 

Tracy  L.            OCR-USDC/EDVA 

UNDER  SEAL 

1  There's  different  security  aspects  involved  for  people 

2  who  want  to  protect  their  privacy,  and  there  certainly  is  the 

3  actual  content  of  the  message  themselves .  That ' s  certainly  what 

4  I  would  concede  is  the  highest  security  interest. 

S  But  there's  also  the  security  interest  to  make  sure 

6  that  they ' re  communicating  with  who  you  want  to  be  communicating 

7  with.  That  is  equally  of  a  concern  for  privacy  issues  because 

8  that  is,  at  the  end  of  the  day,  one  of  the  things  that  secures 

9  the  content  of  the  message . 

10  In  this  case  it  is  true  that  most  Internet  service 

11  providers  do  log,  is  what  they  call  it,  a  lot  of  the  metadata 

12  that  the  government  wants  in  this  case  without  that  necessarily 

13  being  encrypted,  things  such  as  who  something  is  going  to,  who 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

it's  going  from,  the  time  i t' s  being  sent,  the  IP  address  from 

which  it  is  being  sent . 

Lavabit  code  is  not  something  that  you  buy  off  the 

shelf.  It  is  code  that  was  custom  made . 

It  was  custom  made  in 

order  to  secure  privacy  to  the  largest  e xtent  possible  and  to  be 

the  most  secure  way  possible  for  multiple  people  to  communicate, 

and  so  it  has  chosen  specifically  not  to  log  that  information . 

Now,  that  is  actually  information  that  my  client  has 

22  offered  to  start  logging  with  the  particular  user  in  this  case . 

23  It  is,  however,  something  that  is  quite  burdensome  on  him.  It 

24  is  something  that  would  be  custom  code  that  would  take  between 

25  20  to  40  hours  for  him  to  be  able  to  produce .  We  believe  that 

Tracy  L.  Westfall  OCR-VSOC/EDVA 

UNDER  SEAL 

1  is  a  better  alternative  than  turning  over  the  encryption  key 

2  which  can  be  used  to  get  the  data  for  all  Lavabit  users . 

3  I  hope  that  addresses  the  Court's  concern  kind  of  with 

4  regard  to  the  metadata  and  why  it  i s  not  more  -- why  Lavabit 

5  hasn't  created  an  encryption  system  that  may  honestly  be  more 

6  within  the  mainstream,  but  this  is  a  provider  that  specifically 

7  was  started  in  order  to  have  to  protect  privacy  interests  more 

8  than  the  average  Internet  service  provider . 

9  THE  COURT :  I  can  understand  why  the  system  was  set  up, 

10  but  I  think  the  government  is  - - government's  clearly  entitled 

11  to  the  information  that  they 're  seeking,  and  just  because 

12  you-all  have  set  up  a  system  that  makes  that  difficult,  that 

13  doesn't  in  any  way  lessen  the  government ' s  right  to  receive  that 

14  information  just  as  they  ;.!ould  from  any  telephone  company  or  any 

15  other  e-mail  source  that  could  provide  it  easily.  Whether 

16  it's  -- in  other  words,  the  difficulty  or  the  ease  in  obtaining 

17  the  information  doesn ' t  have  anything  to  do  with  whether  or  not 

18  the  government ' s  lawfully  entitled  to  the  information . 

19  MR .  BINNALL :  It  is  -- and  we  don't  disagree  that  the 

20  government  is  entitled  to  the  information .  We  actually 

21  THE  COURT:  Well,  how  are  we  going  to  get  it?  I'm 

22  going  to  have  to  deny  your  motion  to  quash .  It's  just  not 

23  overbroad .  The  government ' s  asking  for  a  very  narrow,  specific 

24  bit  of  information,  and  it's  information  that  they're  entitled 

25  to . 

Tracy  L.              OCR-USDC/.e:DVA 

UNDER  SEAL 

1  Now,  how  are  we  going  to  work  out  that  they  get  it? 

2  MR .  BINNALL:  Your  Honor,  what  I  would  still  say  is  the 

3  best  method  for  them  to  get  it  is,  first  of  all,  there  be  some 

4  way  for  there  to  be  some  sort  of  accountability  other  than  just 

5  relying  on  the  governme nt  to  say  we ' re  not  going  to  go  outside 

6  the  scope  of  the  warrant . 

7  This  is  nothing  that  is ,  of  course,  personal  against 

8  the  government  a nd  the,  you  knmi,  very  professional  law 

9  enforcement  officers  invol ved  in  this  case .  But  quite  simply, 

10  the  way  the  Cons titution  is  set  up,  it ' s  s e t  up  in  a  way  to 

11  ensure  that  there ' s  some  sort  of  checks  and  balances  and 

12  accountability . 

13  THE  COURT:  What  checks  and  balances  need  to  be  set  up? 

14  MR.  BINNALL:  Well --

IS  THE  COURT:  Suggest  something  to  me . 

16  MR.  BINNALL:  I  think  that  the  least  restrictive  means 

17  possible  here  is  that  the  governme nt  essentially  pay  the 

18  reasonable  expenses,  meaning  in  this  case  my  client ' s  extensive 

19  labor  costs  to  be  capped  at  a  reasonable  amount . 

20 

THE  COURT :  Has  the  government  ever  done  that  in  one  of 

21  these  pen  register  cases? 

MR .  BINNALL :  Not  that  I 've  found,  Your  Honor . 

22 

23 

24 

THE  COURT :  I  don't  think  so . 

I've  never  known  of  one. 

MR .  BINNALL:  And  Your  Honor ' s  certainly  seen  more  of 

25  these  than  I  have . 

Tracy  L.                          

UNDER  SEAL 

THE  COURT :  So  would  it  be  reasonable  to  start  now  \<Jith 

2  your  client? 

MR.  BINNALL :  I  think  everyone  \-.'Quld  agree  that  this  is 

4  an  unusual  case .  And  that  this  case,  in  order  to  protect  the 

5  privacy  of  400 , DOO-plus  other  users,  some  sort  of  relatively 

6  small  manner  in  which  to  create  a  log  system  for  this  one  user 

7  to  give  the  government  the  metadata  that  they're  looking  for  is 

8  the  least  restrictive  mean  here,  and  we  can  do  that  in  a  way 

9  that  doesn't  compromise  the  security  keys . 

10  This  is  actually  a  way  that  my  client 

11 

THE  COURT :  You  want  to  do  it  in  a  way  that  the 

12  government  has  to  trust  you 

MR.  BINNALL :  Yes,  Your  Honor. 

THE  COURT :  - - to  come  up  with  the  right  data. 

MR.  BINNALL;  That ' s  correct,  Your  Honor. 

13 

14 

15 

16  THE  COURT:  And  you  won't  trust  the  government.  So  why 

17  would  the  government  trust  you? 

18  MR.  BINNALL:  Your  Honor,  because  that's  what  the  basis 

19  of  Fourth  Amendment  law  says  is  more  acceptable,  is  that  the 

20  government  is  the  entity  that  you  really  need  the  checks  and 

21  balances  on . 

22  Now,  my  --

23  THE  COURT :  I  don ' t  knOl-l  that  the  Fourth  Amendment  says 

24  that .  This  is  a  criminal  investigation. 

25 

MR .  BINNALL :  That  is  absolutely  correct . 

Tracy  L.  Westfall  OCR-USDC/EDVA 

UNDER  SEAL 

1  THE  COURT :  A  criminal  investigation,  and  I  don I  t  know 

2  that  the  Fourth  Amendment  says  that  the  person  being 

3  invest.igated  here  is  entitled  to  more  leeway  and  more  rights 

4  than  the  government  is .  I  don ' t  know . 

5  MR .  BINNALL :  The r e  certainly  is  a  balance  of  power 

6  there .  I,  of  course ,  am  not  here  to  represent  the  interest  of 

7  I'm  here  specifical l y  l ooking  over  my  client.  who 

8  has  sensitive  data  - -

9  THE  COURT :  I  understand .  I'm  trying  to  think  of 

10  working  out  something .  I ' m  not  sure  you're  suggesting  anything 

11  to  me  other  than  either  you  do  it  and  the  government  has  to 

12  trust  you  to  give  them  whatever  you  want  to  give  them  or  you 

13  have  to  trust  the  government  that  they ' re  not  going  to  go  into 

14  your  other  files . 

15  Is  there  some  other  route? 

16  MR .  BI NNALL :  I  would  suggest  that  the  government 

17  I 'm  sorry  - - that  the  Court  can  craft  an  order  to  say  that  we 

18  can  -- that  we  should  work  in  concert  ,,1ith  each  other  in  order 

19  to  come  up  with  this  coding  system  that  gives  the  government  all 

20  of  the  metadata  that  we  can  give  them  through  this  logging 

21  procedure  that  we  can  install  in  the  code,  and  then  using  that 

22  as  a  least  restrictive  means  to  see  if  that  can  get  the 

23  government  the  information  that  they're  looking  for  on  the 

24  specific  account . 

25  THE  COURT :  HOi';  long  does  i t  take  to  install  that? 

Tracy  L.  Westfall                

UNDER  SEAL 

10 

MR .  BINNALL :  I  mean ,  20,  40  hours .  So  I  would  suggest 

2  that  would  probably  be  a  week  to  a  week  and  a  half ,  Your  Honor, 

3  although  I  would  be  willing  to  talk  to  my  client  to  see  if  we 

4  can  get  that  expedi ted . 

5  THE  COURT :  To  install  it? 

MR .  BINNALL :  Well,  to  write  the  code . 

THE  COURT :  You  don ' t  have  a  code  right  at  the  moment . 

8  You  would  have  to  write  something? 

MR .  BINNALL:  That ' s  correct .  And  the  portion  of  the 

10  government's  brief  that  talks  a bout  the  money  that  he  was 

11  looking  for  is  that  reasonable  expense  for  him  basically  to  do 

12  nothing  for  that  period  of  time  but  write  code  to  install  in 

13  order  to  take  the  data  from 

nct  put  it  in  a  way  that 

14  the  government  will  see  the  logged  metadata  involved . 

15  THE  COURT :  All  right .  I  think  I  understand  your 

16  position .  I  don't  think  you  need  to  argue  this  motion  to 

17  unseal.  This  is  a  grand  jury  matter  and  part  of  an  ongoing 

18  criminal  investigation,  and  any  motion  to  unseal  will  be  denied. 

19 

MR .  SHINALL :  I f  I  could  have  the  Court I  s  attention 

20  just  on  one  issue  of  the  nondisclosure  provision  of  this .  And  I 

21  understand  the  Court ' s  position  on  this,  but  there  is  other 

22  privileged  communications  if  the  Court  would  be  so  generous  as 

23  to  allow  me  very  brief ly  to  address  that  issue? 

24  There's  other  First  Amendment  considerations  at  issue 

25  with  not  necessarily  just  the  sealing  of  this,  but  what 

Tracy  L.  We:st.fall  OCR-OSDC/EDVA 

UNDER  SEAL 

11 

1  Mr.  Levison  can  disclose  and  to  whom  he  may  disclose  it . 

2  The  First  Amendment,  of  course,  doesn't  just  cover 

3  speech  and  assembly,  but  the  right  to  petition  for  a  redress  of 

4  grievances .  We're  talking  about  a  statute  here,  and,  honestly, 

5  a  statute  that  is  very  much  in  the  public  eye  and  involving 

6  issues  that  are  currently  pending  before  Congress . 

I  think  the  way  that  the  order  currently  is  written, 

8  besides  being  --

9  THE  COURT :  You're  talking  about  the  sealing  order? 

10  MR .  BINNALL:  I ' m  talking  about  the  sealing  order  and 

11  the  order  that  prohibits  Mr .  Levison  from  disclosing  any 

12  information . 

13 

Now,  we  don ' t  want  to  disclose  -- we  have  no  intention 

14  of  disclosi ng  the  target,  but  we  would  like  to  be  able  to,  for 

15  instance,  talk  to  members  of  the  legislature  and  their  staffs 

16  about  rewriting  this  i n  a  wa y  that's 

17  THE  COURT :  No .  This  is  an  ongoing  criminal 

18  investigation,  and  there ' s  no  leeway  to  disclose  any  information 

19  about  it . 

20 

MR.  BINNALL :  And  so  at  that  point  it  will  remain  with 

21  only  Mr .  Levison  and  his  lawyers,  and  we ' ll  keep  it  at  that . 

22 

THE  COURT :  Let  me  hear  from  Mr .  Trump . 

23  Is  ther e  some  way  we  can  work  this  out  or  something 

24  that  I  can  do  with  an  order  that  will  help  this  or  what? 

25  NR .  TROMP :  I  don ' t  believe  so,  Your  Honor,  because 

Tracy  L.  We3tfall  CCR-OSOC/EDV1'. 

UNDER  SEAL 

12 

1  you 've  already  articulated  the  reason  why  is  that  anything  done 

2  by  Nr.  Levison  in  terms  of  writing  code  or  whatever,  we  have  to 

3  trust  Mr.  Levison  that.  we  have  gotten  the  informat.ion  that  we 

4  were  entitled  to  get  since  June  28th .  He's  had  every 

5  opportunity  to  propose  solutions  to  come  up  with  ways  to  address 

6  his  concerns  and  he  simply  hasn't . 

7  We  can  assure  the  Court  that  the  way  that  this  would 

8  operate,  while  the  metadata  stream  would  be  captured  by  a 

9  device,  the  device  does  not  download,  does  not  store,  no  one 

10  looks  at  it .  It  filters  everything,  and  at  the  back  end  of  the 

11  filter,  w'e  get  what  we're  required  to  get  under  the  order . 

12  So  there's  no  agents  looking  through  the  400,000  other 

13  bits  of  information,  customers,  whatever .  No  one  looks  at  that, 

14  no  one  stores  it,  no  one  has  access  to  it .  All  we're  going  to 

15  look  at  and  all  we're  going  to  keep      what  is  called  for  under 

16  the  pen  register  order,  and  that's  all  we're  asking  this  Court 

to  do .  17 

18 

THE  COURT :  All  right.  Well,  I  think  that's 

19  reasonable.  So  what  is  this  before  me  for  this  morning  other 

20  than  this  motion  to  quash  and  unseal  I-lhich  I've  ruled  on? 

21  MR.  TRUMP :  The  only  thing  is  to  order  the  production 

22  of  the  encryption  keys ,  which  just  --

23 

THE  COURT :  Hasn 't  that  already  been  done?  There's  a 

24  subpoena  for  that . 

25  MR.  TRUMP :  There ' s  a  search  warrant  for  it,  the  motion 

Tracy  L.            OCR-U$DC/EDVA 

1  to  quash . 

UNDER  SEAL 

THE  COURT :  Search  warrant . 

MR .  TRUMP :  Excuse  me? 

4  THE  COURT :  I  said  subpoena ,  but  I  meant  search 

5  warrant . 

13 

MR .  TRUMP :  We  issued  both,  Your  Honor,  but  Your  Honor 

7  authorized  the  seizure  of  that  information.  And  \.;e  would  ask 

8  the  Court  to  enforce  that  by  directing  Mr .  Levison  to  turn  over 

9  the  encryption  keys. 

10  If  counsel  represents  that  that  will  occur,  we  can  not 

11  waste  any  more  of  the  Court ! s  time .  If  he  represents  that 

12  Mr .  Levison  will  not  turn  over  the  encryption  keys,  then  we  have 

13  to  discuss  what  remedial  action  this  Court  can  take  to  require 

14  compliance  with  that  order . 

15  THE  COURT :  Well,  I  will  order  the  production  of 

16  those  -- of  those  keys . 

17  Is  that  simply  Mr .  Levison  or  is  that  the  corporation 

18  as  well? 

19  MR .  TRUMP :  That ' s  one  and  the  same,  Your  Honor . 

20  Just  so  the  record  is  clear .  We  understand  from 

21  Mr .  Levison  that  the  encryption  keys  were  purchased 

22  commercially .  They're  not  somehow  custom  crafted  by 

23  Mr .  Levison.  He  buys  them  from  a  vendor  and  then  they're 

24  installed . 

25 

THE  COURT :          I  will  order  that.  If  you  will 

Tracy  L.            OCR- USOC/EDVA 

UNDER  SEAL  14 

1  present  an  order  to  me,  I'll  enter  it  later  on . 

2  MR .  TRUMP :  Thank  you . 

3  MR .  BINNALL :  Thank  you,  Your  Honor . 

4  As  far  as  time  frame  goes,  my  client  did  ask  me  if  the 

5  Court  did  order  this  if  the  Court  could  give  him  approximately 

6  five  days  in  order  to  actually  physically  get  the  encryption 

7  keys  here .  And  so  it  will  be  -- or  just  some  sort  of  reasonable 

8  time  frame  to  get  the  encryption  keys  here  and  in  the 

9  government's  hands .  He  did  ask  me  to  ask  exactly  the  manner 

10  that  those  are  to  be  turned  over . 

11  MR .  TRUMP :  Your  Honor ,  we  understand  that  this  can  be 

12  done  almost  instantaneously,  as  soon  as  Mr .  Levison  makes 

13  contact  with  an  agent  in  Dallas,  and  we  would  ask  that  he  be 

14  given  24  hours  or  less  to  comply .  This  has  been  going  on  for  a 

15  month . 

16  THE  COURT :  Yeah ,  I  don ' t  think  24  -- 24  hours  would  be 

17  reasonable .  Doesn

t  have  to  do  it  in  the  next  few  minutes,  but 

18  I  would  think  something  like  this ,  it's  not  anything  he  has  to 

19  amass  or  get  together .  It ' s  just  a  matter  of  sending  something . 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

So  I  think  24  hours  would  be  reasonable. 

MR .  BINNALL :  Yes .  Thank  you,  Your  Honor . 

THE  COURT :  All  right .  And  you'll  present  me  an  order? 

MR .  TRUMP :  We  \·Jill,  Your  Honor.  Thank  you . 

THE  COURT :  All  right .  Thank  you-all,  and  we'll 

25  adjourn  until  -- or  stand  in  recess  till  3  o'clock .  Well, 

Tracy  L.  Westfall  OCR-USDC! EDV? 

UNDER  SEAL 

15 

1  recess  till  9  o'clock  tomorrow  morning . 

2  *  *  * 

3  (Proceedings  concluded  at  10 : 25  a.m. ) 

9  CERTIFICATION 

10 

11  I  certify,  this  19th  day  of  August  2013,  that  the 

12  foregoing  is  a  correct  transcript  from  the  record  of  proceedings 

13  in  the  above- entitled  matter  to  the  best  of  my  ability. 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

151 

Tracy  Westfal 

Tracy  L.  Westfall  OCR-USDC/EDVA 

EXHIBIT  19 

IN TIm UNITED STATES DlSTRlCT  COURT FOR TIm 

EASTERN DISTRlCT OF VIRGINIA 

Alexandria  Division 

J  Il 

IN  TIm MATTER OF TIm 

APPLICATION OF TIm UNITED 

STATES  OF AMERICA FORA.."I ORDER 

AlJTIlORlZING TIm USE OF A PEN 

REGISTE..1VIRAP  AND TRACE DEVlCE 

ON A."I  ELECTRONlC MAIL ACCOUNT 

)  UNDERSEAL 

)  No.I:13EC297 

AIJS  I  2013 

IN TIlE MAlTER OF TIlE SEARCH AND 

SEIZURE OF INFORMATION 

TIS 

BY LAVABITILC 

In re Grand Jury 

)  No. I:13SW522 

)  No.  13·1 

ORDER DENYING MOTIONS 

j,.\ 

     DISTRICT  COURT 

O'RIA,          

This matter comes before the  Court on the motions of Lavabit lle and  Ladar  Levinson, 

its  owner and  operator, to  (1) quash the  grand jury subpoena and  search and  seizure warrant 

compelling Lavabit u..c to  provide the  government with encryption keys  to  facilitate the 

installation and  use of a pen register and  trap  and  trace  device, and.(2) unseal  court records  and 

remove a non-<tisclosure order relating to  these proceedings.  For the reasons stated from the 

bench,  and  as  set forth  in the government's response to the motions. it is hereby 

ORDERED that  the motion to  quash  and  motion to unseal an::  DENIED; 

It is further ORDERED that, by 5 p.m.  CDT on August 2, 2013,  LavabitLLC and Larlar 

Levison shall provide the  government with the  encryption keys and  any other "information, 

facilities, and  technical assistance necessary to  accomplish the  installation and use of the penftrap 

device" as  required  by the July  16,2013  seizure v.ramm.t  and the  June 28,2013 pen register order. 

It is further ORDERED that this Order sball remain under seal until further order of this 

Court. 

Alexandria, Virginia 

August _,_ • 2013 

CLAUDEM. HILTON 

UNITED STATES  DIS1RlCT JUDGE 

- 2 -

EXHIBIT 20 

IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  DISTRJCT  C.oURT F.oR THE 

EASTERN  DISTRJCT.oF VIRGINIA 

A!exandria Division 

IN  THE MATTER.oF THE 

)  UNDER SEAL    

!  lL  IE 

     

':".;' 

APPLICA n.oN .oF THE UNlTED  ) 

CliRI\, u.s.  DISTRICT  COUR'l' 

STATES .oF A!V!ERJCA  F.oR AN .oRDER  )  NO.I:13EC297 

ALOONrlRIA.          

AUTH.oRIZING THE USE.oF A PEN  ) 

REGISTERfTRAP AND TRACE DEVICE  ) 

.oN  AN  ELECTRONIC MAIL ACC.oUNT  ) 

IN  THE  MA TIER .oF THE SEARCH AND  ) 

SEIZURE .oF INFORMA  TI.0N  ) 

)  No.  I: I3SWS22 

TIS  ) 

PREMISES  C.oNTR.oLLED  ) 

BY LA V ABIT LLC  ) 

[n re  Grand Jury  )  No.  13- 1 

MOTl.oN FOR SANCTI.oNS 

The United States, through the undersigned counsel, pursuant to Title  18, United States 

Code,  Section 40 J,  hereby moves  for the  issuance of an order imposing sanctions on Lavabit 

LLC and Ladar Levison.  its  owner and operator,  for  Lavabit's  failure to  comply  with  this  Court's 

order entered  August  1,2013.  In support of this motion, the United States represents: 

I.  At  the hearing on  August  I, 20 J 3, this  Court directed  Lavabit to  provide the 

government with the  encryption keys necessary for the  operation of a pen register/trap and  trace 

order entered June 28, 2013.  Lavabit was ordered  to  provide those keys  by 5 p.m.  on August 2, 

2013.  See  Order Denying Motions entered  August 2, 2013. 

2.  At approximately  1 :30 p.m. eDT on August 2,  2013,  Mr.  Levison  gave the  FBI  a 

printout of what he  represented to be  the  encryption keys  needed  to  operate the pen register.  Thi s 

printout,  in  what appears  to  be 4-point type,  consists  of 11  pages oflargely  illegible characters. 

See  Attachment A.  (The attachment was created by  scanning the document provided by Mr. 

Levison;  the  original  document was described by  the  Dal!as FBI  agents as  slightly clearer than 

the  scanned copy  but nevertheless illegible.)  Moreover, each  of the five  encryplion keys  contains 

512  individual characters - or a total  of 2560  characters.  To  make use of these keys, the FBI 

would  have to  manually input all  2560 characters, and one incorrect keystroke in  this  laborious 

process would render the FBI collection system  incapable of collecting decrypted  data. 

l.  At approximately 3:30 p.m. EDT (2:l0 p.m. eDT), the undersigned  AUSA 

contacted counsel  for  Lavabit  LLC and  Mr.  Levison and  informed  him  that the hard  copy format 

for  receipt of the  encryption keys was unworkable and  that  the  goverrunent would need the  keys 

produced  in  electronic format.  Counsel  responded by  email  at  6:50  p.m.  EDT stating that  Mr. 

Levison "thinks"  he  can have an electronic version of the  keys produced by Monday,  August 5, 

2013. 

4.  On August 4, 20D, the  undersigned AU SA sent  an e-mail  to  counsel  for  Lavabit 

LLC and  Mr.  Levison stating that  we expect  to  receive an  electronic version of the encryption 

keys by  10:00 a.m.  CDT on Monday, August 5,  2013.  The e-mail  indicated  that we expect the 

keys  to  be produced  in  PEM  format,  an  industry standard  file  format  for digitally representing 

SSL  keys.  See  Attachment B.  The e-mail  further stated that the  preferred  medium for  receipt of 

these keys  would  be  a  CD hand-delivered  to  the Dallas office of the  FBI (with which  Mr. 

Levison is familiar),  The undersigned AUSA  infonned counsel for Lavabit LLC and  Mr. 

Levison that the government would  seek  an order imposing sanctions if we  did  not receive  the 

encryption keys in  electronic fonnat  by  Monday morni ng. 

- 2 -

5.  The government  did  not  receive  the  electronic keys as requested.  The 

undersigned  AU SA spoke with counsel  for  Lavabit and  Mr.  Levison at  approximately  10:00  a.m. 

this morning, and  he  stated that Mr. Levison might be able to  produce the keys  in  electronic 

format  by  5 p.m.  on August  5,  2013.  The undersigned  AU SA  told  counsel  that was  not 

acceptable given  that it  should take Mr. Levison 5 to  10  minutes to  put the  keys  onto a CD  in 

PEM  format.  The undersigned  AUSA told  counsel that if there  was some reason  why  it cannot 

be  accomplished sooner, to  let him  bow by  11 :00 a.m.  this  morning.  The government has  not 

received an  answer from  counsel. 

6.  The government therefore  moves the  Court to  impose sanctions on  Lavabit LLC 

and  Mr.  Levison  in  the amount of $5000 per day beginning at  noon (EDD on  August  5,2013, 

and continuing each  day  in the same amount until Lavabit  LLC and  Mr.  Levison comply with 

this  Court's orders. 

7.  As  noted, Attachment A to  this  motion is a copy of the  printout  provided  by  Mr. 

Levison on  August 2, 2013.  Attachment B is  a more detailed explanation of how these 

encryption keys can be given to the  FBI  in  an  electronic format.  Attachment C to  this motion is a 

proposed order. 

- 3 -

8.  A copy of this motion,  filed  Wlder  seal,  was  delivered by  email  to  counsel  for 

Lavabit LLC on  August 5, 2013. 

- 4  -

Respectfully submitted, 

Neil  H.  MacBride 

Justin  W.  Williams  U.S.  Attorney's Building 

2100 Jamieson  Avenue 

Alexandria,  Virginia 22314 

Phone:  703-299-3700 

Attachment A 

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-:;  ,: ...  · . "·,-..  ... 1"'1 .. ' ·"'.:-.,I..r ... .;AJu-".JX)I;. ..               • .-:,.;V  ." 

     'y'       · ...  \·,,··"'  .. ·f ..                                  ....  :} .. \  . 

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:, t- .•           .;.:           :'-);1 

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A IT  ACHMENT B 

Lavabit uses  2048·bit Secure Socket  Layer (SSL) certificates purchased from  GoDaddy to 

encrypt communication bet".Veen  users  and  its server.  SSL encryption employs public-key 

cryptography, in  which both the  sender and  receiver each have two mathematically linked keys:  a 

"public" key and a "private" key.  "Public" keys arc  published, but "private" keys  are  not.  In this 

circumstance, a Lavabit customer uses Lavabit's published public key  to initiate an encrypted 

email  session with Lavabit over the  internet.  Lavabit's servers then decrypt this  traffic using their 

private  key.  The only way to  decrypt this traffic is through the usage of this private key.  A SSL 

certificate  is  another name  for a published public key. 

To obtain a SSL certificate from GoOaddy,  a user needs to  firs!  generate a 2048-bil 

private key on  hislher computer.  Depending on the operating system and web server used,  there 

are  mUltiple  ways to generate a private key.  One of the more popular methods is to  use a freely 

available command-line tool  called  OpenSSL.  This generation also creates a certificate signing 

request file.  The user sends this file to  the SSL generation authority (e.g.  GoOaddy) and 

OoOaddy then sends  back the SSL certifi cate.  The private key is not sent to GoDaddy and 

should be retained by the user.  This private key is stored  on the user's web server to  permit 

decryption of internet traffic, as described above.  The FBI's collection  system that will  be 

installed to implement the PRiTT also requires the  private key  to  be  stored to  decrypt Lavabit 

email  and  internet traffic.  This decrypted traffic will  then be  filtered  for  the  target email  address 

specified  in  the  PRlTI order. 

Depending on how exactly the private key  was  first  generated  by  the user, it itself may be 

encrypted and protected by  a password supplied by  the user.  This additional  level of security is 

useful  if,  for  example, a  backup  copy of the  private key is stored on  a CD.  Ifthal CD v.'8S  lost or 

stolen, the  private key would not be compromised because a password would be required to 

access it.  However,  the  user that generated  the private key would have supplied  it at generation 

time and would  thus  have  knowledge of it.  The OpenSSL tool  described above is capable of 

decrypting encrypted  private keys and  converting the  keys  to  a non-encrypted  format  with a 

simple, well -documented  command.  The FBI's collection system and most web servcrs requires 

the  key  to be stored in a non-encrypted format. 

A 2048-bit key is composed of 512 characters.  The standard practice of exchanging 

private SSL keys  between entities is  to  use some electronic medium  (e.g.,  CD  or  secure internet 

exchange).  SSL keys  are rarely,  if ever, exchanged verbally or through print medium due to  their 

long length and possibil ity  of human error.  Mr. Levison has  previously  stated that Lavabit 

actually uses five  separate public/private key pairs, one for each type of mail protocol  used  by 

Lavabit. 

PEM  format  is an  industry-standard file  format  for  digitally representing SSL keys.  PEM 

files can easily be  created using the  OpenSSL tool  described above.  The  preferred medium for 

receiving these  keys  would be  on a CO. 

EXHIBIT 21 

IN TIlE UNITED STATES D1STRlCT COURT FOR THE 

EASTERN DISTRlCT OF VIRGINIA                        

Alexandria  Division    

AlYO  5 J'," 

-- -

IN  THE MATTER OF TIlE 

APPLICATION  OF  THE UNITED 

STATES  OF AMERlCA FOR AN  ORDER 

AUTHORlZING TIlE USE OF A PEN 

REGISTERITRAP AND TRACE DEVICE 

ON  AN  ELECTRONIC MAIL ACCOUNT 

IN  THE MATTER OF THE SEARCH  AND 

SEIZURE OF INFORMATION 

IS 

STORED AT PREMlSES CONTROLLED 

BY  LAVABITLLC 

In  re  Grand  Jury 

))  UNDER SEAL          

CW1, 

,u.s.  OISTRlcr COtJRT 

)  No.  l: 13EC297  ALfW:DRiA.\1RG1H1A 

)  No.  LI3SW522 

)  No.  13-1 

ORDER 

This maner comes before the Court  on  the  motion of the government for  sanctions  for 

failure  to comply  with this Court's  order entered  August 2, 2013.  For the  reasons stated  in  the 

government's motion,  and  pursuant to  Title  18,  United  States  Code,  Section 401,  it  is hereby 

ORDERED that  the motion  for  sanctions  is  granted; 

It  is further  ORDERED that,  if the  encryption keys  necessary  to  implement the  pen 

register and trap  and  trace device are not provided to  the  FBI  in  PEM or equivaJent electronic 

format by  noon (CDT) on August 5. 2013. a fine of five  thousand doBars ($5.000.00)  shall  be 

imposed  on Lavabit  LLC  and  Mr.  Levison; 

It  is  further  ORDERED  that,  if the  encryption  keys  necessary  to  implement the  pen 

register and trap  and  trace  device are  not provided  to  the FBI  in  PEM or equivalent  electronic 

format by noon (CDT) each day thereafter beginning August 6,  2013,  a fine  of five thousand 

dollars ($5,000.00) shall  be  imposed on Lavabit LLC and  Mr.  Levison for each day of non· 

compliance;  and 

It is  further  ORDERED that the government's motion  for  sanctions and  this Order shall 

remain  under seal  until further order of this Court. 

Alexandria, Virginia 

August  5"  , 2013 

CLAUDE M.  HILTON 

Ul\'lTED STATES  D1STRJCT  JUDGE 

- 2  -

EXHIBIT 22 

IN  THE UNITED  STATES  DISTRICT COURT FOR THE 

EASTERN  DISTRIC'T  OF VIRGINIA 

Alexandria Division 

IN  THE MATTER  OF THE 

APPLICATION  OF THE UNITED 

STATES AUTHORIZING  THE  USE 

OF A prm REGISTERjTRI\P 

AND  TRACE DEVICE  ON  AN 

ELECTRONIC  MAIL  ACCOUNT 

IN  THE  MATTER  OF THE SEARCH 

AND  SEIZURE OF INFORMATION 

PREMISES  CONTROLLED BY 

LAVAS IT  LLC 

FILED UNDER SEAL 

NO.1: I 3EC297 

No.1: 13SW522 

NOTICE  OF APPEAL 

Notice  is hereby given  that Lavabit LLC  ("Lavahit")  and  Mr.  Ladar  Levison 

("Mr.  Levison")  in  the above named case,  hereby appeal  to  the  United States 

Court of Appeals  for  the  Fourth  Circuit from  the Orders  of this  Court entered 

on  August  1,2013 and August 5,  2013. 

sc R.  IlmhaJl,  VSS#  79292 

nley &  BinnalI, PLLC 

1!()387  Main Street,  Suite  201 

Fairfax, Virginia 22030 

(703)  229-0335 - Telephone 

(703)  537-0780 - Facsimile 

jbinnall@bblawonline.com 

Counsel for Lavabit LLC 

LAVABlT  LLC 

LADAR LEVISON 

By Counsel 

Certificate of Service 

I certify  that on this  15th  day of August, 2013,  this Notice  of Appeal was 

emailed and mailed  to the person  at the addresses listed below: 

Eastern District of Virginia 

2100            Avenue 

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE 

EASTERN  DISTRIC'T  OF VIRGINIA 

Alexandria Division 

FILED  UNDER SEAL 

In re Grand Jury  No.  13-1 

NOTICE OF APPEAL 

Notice is hereby given that Lavabit LLC  ("Lavabit")  and Mr.  Ladar Levison 

("Mr.  Levison")  in the above named case, hereby appeaJ  to the United States 

Court of Appeals for  the Fourth Circuit from  the Orders of this Court  entered 

on August 1, 2013  and August 5,2013. 

J ~ e   R.  Bi  'Y' I,  VSB#  79292 

B  nley &  Blnnall,  PLLC 

1  387 Main Street, Suite 201 

Fairfax,  Virginia  22030 

(703)  229-0335 - Telephone 

(703)  537-0780 - Facsimile 

jbinnall@bblawonhne.com 

Counsel for Lavabit LLC 

LAVABITLLC 

LADAR LEVISON 

By Counsel 

Certificate of Service 

I certify  that on this  15th day of August, 2013,  this Notice of Appeal was 

emailed  and  mailed  to  the person at the  addresses listed  below: 

Eastern  District of Virginia 

2100 Jamieson Avenue 

EXHIBIT 23 

IN  THE UNITED  STATB:S  DISTRICT COURT FOR THB: 

EASTERN  DISTRICT OF VIRGINIA 

Alexandria Division 

IN THB:  MATTER OF THE 

APPLICATION  OF THE UNITB:D 

STATES AUTHORIZING THE USE 

OF A  PEN  REGISTER/TRAP 

AND  TRACE  DEVICE ON  AN 

ELECTRONIC  MAIL  ACCOUNT 

IN  THE  MATTER  OF THE SEARCH 

AND  SEIZURE OF INFORMATION 

" 'U''P IS 

VL1""uAT 

PREMISES  CONTROLLED  BY 

LAVA BIT LLC 

FILED UNDER SEAL 

No.1: 13SW522 

NOTICE OF APPEAL 

Notice is hereby given  that Lavabit LLC  ("Lavabit")  and  Mr.  Ladar Levison 

("Mr.  Levison")  in the above  named case,  hereby  appeal to  the United  States 

Court of Appeals  for  the  Fourth  Circuit from  the  Orders  of this Court entered 

on August  I,  2013 and August 5,2013. 

e  R.  Binn  SB# 79292 

onley &  Binnall,  PLLC 

0387 Main  Street, Suite 201 

Fairfax,  Virginia  22030 

(703)  229-0335 - Telephone 

(703)  537-0780 - Facsimile 

jbinnall@bblawonline.com 

Counsel/or Lauabit LLC 

LAVABIT  LLC 

/  LADAR LEVISON 

By Counsel 

Certificate  of Service 

I certify that on this  16th day of August,  2013,  this  Notice  of Appeal was 

emailed  and mailed  to  the person at the  addresses listed  below: 

Eastern  District of Virginia 

2100 Jamieson Avenue 

?I/}V) 

/ I ; ~  

"  "